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BACKGROUND. Starting from the European and American guidelines regarding sedation during gastrointestinal investigations and continuing with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) recommendations, we have developed a software that helps the ENT specialist to decide whether the patient can undergo a moderate sedation in the operating room, or in the outpatient office, during the drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The application is written in C#, using the. NET Framework, and is available for the Windows operating system. The application has a very simple and user-friendly interface, and a bare-bones implementation, focusing strictly on the decision-making process.

RESULTS. The application involves the information obtained from patient history, clinical examination and polysomnography. After filling all the patient’s data, it will show the result that can be one of the following: ”treatment can be ambulatory”, “treatment should be done in the hospital” or “treatment is not recommended”.

CONCLUSION. The decision-making software application may substitute the evaluation of the anaesthesiologist during drug-induced sleep endoscopy in certain conditions.


In the perspective of the General Theory of Fighting Arts, an analysis of socio-cultural factors that determine the opposition of the role of a teacher of martial arts (Jap. sensei) to the role of a sports trainers was undertaken. The structural cultural context, cultural patterns, and social institutions resulting from divergent goals were taken into account. The roles of teachers and trainers result from these conditions. The existence of the separate roles of the master-teacher in martial arts and the sports trainer was established. These roles manifest themselves in different relations with students or players. Democratic and egalitarian interactions in sports teams include player and coach relations. In traditional martial arts, the dominance of the teacher is more accepted. However, there is also a social position combining the features of the sensei and the trainer that is typical for combat sports that are also martial arts (participating in sports competitions). As there are relationships of subordination in the hierarchical societies of Japan and Korea, there is no problem with recognizing the primary role of the sensei in these cultures. The position of the master-teacher is also sanctified by tradition. Reducing educational systems, which are the paths of martial arts, to oriental varieties of sports would be a serious factual mistake.


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an interdisciplinary program of Greek folk dance, with topics from history and geography on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety level. The sample consisted of 260 students (134 boys & 126 girls). The experimental group (n=144) followed the interdisciplinary four-week program (two lessons per week) while the control group (n=126) followed the corresponding typical physical education program. For the data collection, the questionnaire used was the “Goal orientation” by Papaioannou, Milosis, Kosmidou, and Tsiggilis (2002) and the Greek version (Kakkos & Zervas, 1996) of “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (Martens et al., 1990). The students filled in the questionnaires before and after their participating in each program. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and Repeated Measures ANOVA were used. Results showed that a. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory. b. Τhe experimental group decreased significantly the levels of “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and on the contrary significantly increase the “personal development”, and “social acceptance”. c. Experimental group’s boys and girls decreased their “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and enhanced their “personal development” and “social acceptance” more than their control group peers. d. The experimental group decreased the levels of somatic and cognitive anxieties and increased significantly their self-confidence. e. male students increased their self-confidence more than female students. These findings support the view that an interdisciplinary program of traditional Greek dance with issues from history and geography enable us to reduce the rates of ego-strengthening, ego-protection, somatic and cognitive anxiety while simultaneously increases students’ personal development, social acceptance, and self-confidence


BACKGROUND. Nasal septum deviations are disorders in which the nasal septum has an abnormal conformation that affects nasal breathing. Surgical correction of the deviated nasal septum, performed by various techniques, is one of the methods of repermeabilization of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic surgical treatment of the nasal septum deviation on the nasal obstruction, as well as to evaluate the frequency of postoperative complications compared to classical septoplasty.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed on a group of 92 patients diagnosed with nasal septal deviation, between 2014-2018. 32 patients were excluded from the study after the exclusion criteria were applied. Two groups of 30 patients each were formed: Group I, endoscopic septoplasty was performed; Group II, the conventional septoplasty was used. An objective endoscopic and rhinomanometric evaluation, as well as a subjective assessment of symptoms (nasal obstruction, headache, posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing), was performed preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.

RESULTS. The study showed better results (p<0.05) and fewer complications in endoscopic septoplasty compared to the traditional one, the endoscopic septoplasty providing better lighting and improved access, allowing a limited incision.

CONCLUSION. Endoscopic septoplasty can be considered a reliable alternative to traditional techniques. It is essential to correctly identify the type of preoperative deformity in order to select the appropriate surgical strategy.


This study aims to examine the motivational factors that direct individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating leisure activities. The study is designed in descriptive and relational survey models, which are among the quantitative research patterns. A total of 1677 individuals participated in the study. A personal information form and the Computer Gaming Motivation Scale were used. An independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation test were used to analyze the data. According to the results, there were significant differences in the concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization sub-dimensions of the participants in favor of the groups playing in Internet cafes. The findings indicate that when more time is spent with information and communication technologies, there is a decrease in concentration and an increase in entertainment and escape. Furthermore, when the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scale was examined, positively moderate and high correlations were found among concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization. As a result, rapid technological changes and developments provide many opportunities for individuals. It is thought that individuals’ busy work lives and monotonous daily routines cause them to prefer easily accessible activities during their leisure time.


Fungus ball of the maxillary sinus (FBMS) is the most common form of chronic fungal rhinosinusitis in adults. It is a condition of old age, usually with unilateral involvement, and with female preponderance. It is especially described in immunocompetent individuals and is characterized by a slow and benign evolution. Although the etiology, pathogenesis and natural history of fungal rhino-sinusitis have been studied extensively, they are far from being fully understood. The clinical presentation and endoscopic findings in patients with fungus ball of the maxillary sinus are nonspecific, often identical to those of chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis and the cultures are often negative. Imaging evaluation by CT scan suggests, by characteristic signs, a correct diagnosis, which is then correlated with the histological identification of fungal hyphae. Microbiological, histopathological and mycological examinations of nasal secretion established with certainty a variety of bacteria (70%) and fungi (61.7%) in a group of 60 patients with FBMS included in a three-year study. The most commonly detected bacterial floras were Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter Koseri, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella oxytoca. On culture media, the most common fungal agents were Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus.


Mucoceles are benign, expansive, cystic tumors, affecting especially the adult, with development in the paranasal sinuses. Clinical symptoms are not specific. These are rare conditions that originate within the sinusal mucosa, favoured by the obstruction of the sinus ostium. Due to the inflammation and the expansive character of the tumor, with the erosion of the bony walls, combined forms can develop, with the involvement of two or more sinuses, most frequently with fronto-ethmoidal localization.

The authors carry out a clinical retrospective study on 25 cases of mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated in the ENT Clinic of the “Sfantul Spiridon” Emergency Clinical Hospital Iasi, during 2015-2019. The authors insist on aspects related to clinical and radiological diagnosis (CT scanner), as well as surgical treatment by external approach.

The postoperative evolution is generally simple, with full recovery, without complications or recurrences.

The diagnosis of the mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses consists in radiologic techniques by preoperative CT scan examination, intraoperative macroscopic aspect and histopathological result.

Surgical approach with complete excision of the tumor and creating a new sinusal drainage path prevents the occurrence of recurrences.


The objective of this study was to ascertain whether happiness varies depending on sports participation and religious practice. The sample comprised 2,378 participants aged between 18 and 92 years. All analysis were carried out by testing the interaction effects of the variables of sex and age on sports participation, religious practice, and happiness. We found a high average level of happiness (M = 7.299, range 0–10). However, people who do not participate in sports or practice a religion indicated a level of happiness (M = 6.979) that was statistically lower than that of the other groups: people who practice a religion but do not participate in sports (M = 7.135); people who participate in sports but do not practice a religion (M = 7.478); and people who both participate in sports and practice a religion (M = 7.717). We conclude that happiness is associated with sports participation and religious practice, although with small or very small effect sizes (all p< 0.050; η2p between 0.008 and 0.020).