Over the last 20 years, sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly used tool to tackle education-related challenges around the world and has even become recognized by major international institutions such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth. In spite of this, evidence on the effectiveness of SFD programs on educational outcomes is limited. Through a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), this paper seeks to begin addressing this gap. Literature is included if it quantitatively examines the relationship between participation in a SFD program and educational outcomes, namely academic performance, school attendance, or attitudes and behaviors related to school. Results are then organized and presented according to these aforementioned areas. The identified literature paints a mixed picture of SFD’s impact on educational outcomes related to academic performance and school attendance, though the data related to improved attitude and behavior is more positive. Overall, the lack of research on this topic and the deficiencies in some of the identified studies do not allow for the conclusion that SFD generates positive education-related outcomes. This paper concludes by proposing potential solutions to address this gap in research.
We sought to determine the clinical significance of delayed complications after different neurosurgical procedures, such as chronic sinusitis and frontocutaneus fistula. These can be managed by endoscopic closure or by external approach, depending on the cause and extent of sinusitis. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who was presented to our ENT Department with a frontocutaneus fistula and was surgically managed.
In the recent years, the development of stomatology with emphasis on dental implants procedures has led to an increase in the number of sinonasal complications. Sinonasal complications of dental disease and treatment are an important cause of sinus pathology, being responsible for 10-12% of all causes of chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis.
The main etiological factors involved in odontogenic sinusitis are represented by dental fillings, tooth roots in traumatic extraction, dental implants displacement and parts of broken instruments. The diagnostic work-up includes evaluation of the symptoms, history of dental treatment, dental examination, CT scan and nasal endoscopy.
The treatment is surgical and can be represented by transnasal endoscopic technique performed by the otorhinolaryngologist or a transoral technique performed by the maxillofacial surgeon when oro-antral fistulas are present. The endoscopic approach is preferred but has its limits when the tooth root is placed in the alveolar recess, or at the level of the anterior, medial and lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. Concurrent middle and inferior antrostomy provides a better view of the sinus and increases effectiveness of the surgical treatment with minimal physiological damage.
Feedback has been shown to influence the extent and rate of learning. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of Knowledge of Results (KR) on more accurate trials versus KR on less accurate trials on intrinsic motivation, self-confidence and anxiety changes. Participants were 60 female students with a mean age of 16 years (SD = 0.4). Participants practiced volleyball serve task in 4 session (each session included 6 blocks and each block included 6 trials) that subjects received feedback on 3 trials out of 6 trials at the completion of each 6-trial block. While one group was provided KR about the accuracy of the 3 best serves in each block, another group was given KR about the 3 poorest serves. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) twice as pre-test and post-test. Both groups increased their service scores across practice blocks. On the retention test without KR, which was performed seven day after the practice phase, the more accurate trials group had higher accuracy scores than the less accurate trials group. The present findings demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased. In addition, results demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased.
BACKGROUND. Smell disorders may be classified in quantitative and qualitative. The literature shows that the main causes of odour disorders, both qualitative and quantitative, are due to aging, viral infections and tumors of the upper respiratory tract, craniocerebral trauma, neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system, drug use or exposure to various toxic substances. Total laryngectomy and oncologic treatment causes smell disorders.
OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aspects related to the patient’s smell disorders after total laryngectomy, during the oncological treatment represented by radiotherapy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. A prospective observational study was performed on a group of 52 patients, over a period of one year (2016-2017), who benefited from total laryngectomy and who underwent oncological treatment, represented by radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated before starting radiotherapy and during radiotherapy sessions. All patients underwent quantitative and qualitative smell assessment.
RESULTS. At the end of week 7 of radiotherapy, none of the patients was considered normosmic, 10 patients were considered to be suffering from hyposmia and 42 from anosmia. Statistically significant changes in the quantitative determination of odour occurred in the fourth week, respectively at the radiation dose of 40Gy. Qualitative odour assessment in this study showed a statistically significant decrease starting with the fifth week of radiotherapy, respectively with a radiation dose of 50Gy.
CONCLUSION. Radiation therapy has a major impact on the quality of life of patients with laryngeal cancer, which has the lowest scores at the beginning and end of the treatment.
The facial nerve, the seventh pair of cranial nerves, has an essential role in non-verbal communication through facial expression. Besides innervating the muscles involved in facial expression, the complex structure of the facial nerve contains sensory fibres involved in the perception of taste and parasympathetic fibres involved in the salivation and tearing processes. Damage to the facial nerve manifested by facial paralysis translates into a decrease or disappearance of mobility of normal facial expression.
Facial nerve palsy is one of the common causes of presenting to the Emergency Room. Most facial paralysis are idiopathic, followed by traumatic, infectious, tumor causes. A special place is occupied by the child’s facial paralysis. Due to the multitude of factors that can determine or favour its appearance, it requires a multidisciplinary evaluation consisting of otorhinolaryngologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist, internist.
Early presentation to the doctor, accurate determination of the cause, correctly performed topographic diagnosis is the key to proper treatment and complete functional recovery.
Presented paper contains looks which mainly attempt to analyse the promotion in sport by social media and brand image management on the example of „Connected by football” channel.
Research process required usage of diagnostic survey method. Exploration shows that social media has contributed to popularisation and improved the image of the Polish National Football Team. Respondents’ opinions about the formula of the „Connected by football” channel. The reasons and motives for the interest of the „Connected by football” channel are mainly involved with sports activities and the team’s life outside of trainings and matches. Survey shows that half of the respondents changed their mind about the players after watching the video materials and due to this fact the emotional bond between players and supporters increase. The research presents that „Connected by football” channel played a significant role in Polish National Football Team image’s building.
Surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis is indicated after failure of correctly conducted maximal drug therapy or the occurrence of complications. Radical maxillary sinus surgery has been abandoned nowadays, to the detriment of endoscopic sinus surgery, for several reasons, such as: increased incidence of complications, decreased healing rate compared to the endoscopic technique. The literature cites many situations in which the Caldwell-Luc procedure is used as a first-line surgical technique: recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis, malignant tumors of the maxillary sinus extending to the lateral wall of the nasal fossa and the pterygomaxillary space, the cases where an extensive approach to the pterygopalatine fossa is required – for ligation of the internal maxillary artery or the approach of the vidian canal in vidian neurectomy.
The authors highlight the use of Caldwell-Luc procedure in endoscopic sinus surgery era, by reviewing the complications rates, indications and long-term effectiveness of the two surgical techniques.
The article presents differences in describing sportspeople during the last four Olympic Games in terms of gender and nationality in Polish newspapers. The fundamental goal of the research was to perform the quantitative and qualitative comparison of press materials from four Olympics (Vancouver 2010, London 2012, Sochi 2014, Rio de Janeiro 2016). The content analysis was used for the quantitative part of the study and critical discourse analysis of two newspapers (the broadsheet and tabloid) in Poland for qualitative part. 712 media articles were analyzed. Our analysis has revealed significant underrepresentation of women and also differences in the description of rival competitors as well as overrepresentation of articles about Polish representatives during the Olympics. Those articles dwelt on the issue of nationality much more often and were more emotionally charged. Also, to a great extent, the performance of non-Polish women athletes was left unconsidered. The authors therefore indicate the validity of combining gender analysis and nationality in the context of the Olympic Games.
This paper focuses on personal statements written by 23 Year 11 students about what outdoor recreational activities they participated in and their sense of cultural identity in the culturally plural context of Australia.. A sociological approach of inductive analysis of their comments was employed to investigate the extent to which those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. The respondents came from six Adelaide co-educational secondary schools which agreed to participate in the study. The responses given to the guideline questions provided evidence of participation in twelve different outdoor recreational activities, some involving individual pursuits and others group activities. Twelve students identified themselves as ‘mainstream Australian’, while eight claimed identities linked to other European and Asian cultural groups and three reported no sense of cultural identification. The evidence from this exploratory study was that those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. However, they were more likely to be involved in individual rather than group activities. Furthermore they preferred land-based activities to those requiring water skills. The paper discusses the significance of the findings, implications for making future initiatives and policies in outdoor recreational activities more inclusive, as well as directions for further research.