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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the relations between anthropometric parameters, red blood cells’ (RBC) variables and cardio-physiological parameters in healthy and physically active children and adolescents.

Material and Methods: In this study 625 subjects, (410 males and 215 females; age span 8 to 18 years) underwent body composition analysis (Matiegka method), blood analysis and ergometry testing (Bruce protocol).

Results: In both groups, body height and weight were positively correlated with RBC variables. In female group almost all correlations between RBC variables and body components were insignificant. In boys all absolute body mass components showed positive correlations with RBC variables with notice that body fat mass had lowest correlation coefficient. Body fat percent (BF %) did not show any correlation with RBC variables in both gender groups. In boys BF % had moderate negative correlation with aerobic performance: exercise time (ET) and VO2max (rs = -0.41 and rs = -0.39). Lean body components showed weak positive correlations with ET and VO2max. RBC count did not show significant correlation with any cardio-physiological parameter in both groups. Haematocrit and haemoglobin showed weak positive correlations with VO2 max and general endurance (exercise time). In girls all correlations between cardio-physiological and RBC variables were insignificant. The relationship between all body components and all cardio-physiological variables in girls were statistically insignificant.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that there are some expected positive correlations between lean body mass components, aerobic performance and RBC variables in boys, while in girls such relations were not noticed.


Introduction: Prostate carcinoma is the most frequent malign neoplasm among men with an ever-growing incidence rate. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript leads to the androgen induction of ERG proto-oncogenes expression, representing a high presence of oncogenes alteration among prostate tumour cells.

Aim: The aim of this research was to detect and evaluate theTMPRSS2-ERG fuse transcript in the tissues of patients with prostate cancer, and establish a base of material of these samples for further genetic examination.

Materials and methods: The research was a prospective clinical study that involved and focused on random sampling of 101 patients (62 with prostate cancer-study group and 39 with benign changes in the prostate-control group). Real time PCR analysis for detection of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript in prostate tissue was performed and also data from the histopathology results of tissues were used, as well as data for the level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in blood.

Results: TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript was detected in 20 out of 62 (32.2%) patients with prostate carcinoma and among no patients with benign changes whatsoever. There were no significant differences between patients with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion related to Gleason score. Among 50%, in the study group this score was greater than 7 per/for Median IQR=7 (6-8). Significant difference was recognized, related to the average value of PSA in favour of significantly higher value of PSA in the study group with prostate cancer, but there was also no significant difference between samples with prostate cancer who were with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript related to PSA level.

Discussion: The results from this research are in accordance with the values and results from analyses done in several research centres and oncological institutes.

Conclusion: The positive findings in small scale studies encourage the implementation of larger scale studies that will be enriched with results of genetic transcript in blood and urine and will define the positive diagnostic meaning of the TMPRSS-ERG fusion transcript.


Introduction: One of the most important types of microorganisms in the oral cavity in both healthy and non-healthy individuals is Fusobacterium nucleatum. Although present as a normal resident in the oral cavity, this Gram-negative pathogen is dominant in periodontal disease and it is involved in many invasive infections in the population, acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as many adverse events with a fatal outcome.

Aim: To determine the role of F. nucleatum in the development of polymicrobial biofilms thus pathogenic changes in and out of the oral media.

Material and method: A systematic review of the literature concerning the determination and role of F. nucleatum through available clinical trials, literature reviews, original research and articles published electronically at Pub Med and Google Scholar.

Conclusion: The presence of Fusobacterium nucleatum is commonly associated with the health status of individuals. These anaerobic bacteria plays a key role in oral pathological conditions and has been detected in many systemic disorders causing complex pathogenethic changes probably due to binding ability to various cells thus several virulence mechanisms.

Most common diseases and conditions in the oral cavity associated with F.nucleatum are gingivitis (G), chronic periodontitis (CH), aggressive periodontitis (AgP), endo-periodental infections (E-P), chronic apical periodontitis (PCHA). The bacterium has been identified and detected in many systemic disorders such as coronary heart disease (CVD) pathological pregnancy (P); polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), high-risk pregnancy (HRP), colorectal cancer (CRC); pre-eclampsia (PE); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); osteoarthritis (OA).


Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of infrabony defects in patients with chronic periodontitis by evaluating the clinical outcome through periodontal depth, clinical attachment level at the baseline, 6 and 9 months post operatively.

Material and Methods: Sixty infrabony defects with probing depth ≥ 5 mm were treated. The inclusion criterion was the necessity for surgical bilateral maxillary treatment. By using split-mouth study design, each patient had one side treated with conventional flap surgery and the other side with conventional flap surgery and PRF. Clinical parameters, such as probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment lost (CAL), were recorded in both groups at baseline, 6 and 9 months post operatively.

Results: Positive effects for all clinical and radiographic parameters were evident in the group with PRF. Mean PD reduction demonstrated statistically significant greater results in the test group (4.00±1.07 mm) compared to the control one (4.83±0.99 mm), p = 0.003 after 9 months postoperatively. After 9 months, there were better results in the test group compared to the control group for CAL (5.60±1.61 mm, 6.20±1.58 mm), but statistically not significant.

Conclusion: Additional use of PRF in the conventional surgical treatment of infrabony defects demonstrated better parameters than the open flap debridement alone.


For achieving the good health and wellbeing for all children, the main role of pediatrician and other health care professionals is to follow their development.

We implemented developmental monitoring for 465 children at the age of 12 - 60 months, in the period of 4 years (2016 - 2019), using standard algorithm in which start is always with child history. It should be comprehensive, and must include a detailed prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history.

Obtained results showed that 16.13% of participants have some serious illness in family history, and the same percentage (16.13%) manifested serious perinatal problems which imposed the support in intensive care unit. Breastfeed are 49,46 % of children. Only 7,53 % are not completely vaccinated.

About the parameters for the development, we obtained that 11,83 % were not walking at the time of the assessment, and 65,81 % were not speaking. Toilet control was negative, and in 75,27 % they still were wearing diapers.

Allergic manifestations at the time when the assessment was done is present in 8,60%. Finally, serious illness in child past history was positive in 19.35 % of evaluated sample.

We concluded that a good history is needed and indispensable in the assessment process, particularly when exogenous causes are identified as the risk for the developmental delay. Obtained positive answers are directory for further investigation as well to correlate risk-consequences relationship.


In their daily practice dentists frequently have patients showing signs of stress-related oral manifestations in different forms. Stress-related aetiology of oral changes are still not investigated enough, and present a subgroup of psychosomatic diseases which had been recognized in medicine a long time ago. Recognition of such psychological or emotional disturbance needs deep evaluation “per exclusionem”, and is beneficial for both the patient and clinician. Psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these psychosomatic disorders. Therapeutic approach comprises different forms of psychotherapy and medication as well.


Aim:To determine whether there is an immunogenic connection and antigen difference between the HLA antigens in the erosive (EOLP) and reticular (ROLP) oral lichen planus.

Materials and Method: 73 patients with ROLP and EOLP have been tested. Typing of the HLA antigens has been made for locus A and B. The typing of the HLA was conducted with the use of microlymphocyto toxic test by Terasaki. The reading of the findings has been conducted with an inverse microscope. When a reaction has 4 points it is considered to be positive.

Results: The most frequently typified antigens in ROLP from locus A are HLA А2 (57.57%) and А3 (33.33)%, and for locus B 21.21%. In EOLP it is А9 (8888%). In locus B a connection has been found with HLA B8 (77.77%). The statistical analysis with the ×2 test has shown that the carriers of HLA A9 display a relative risk (RR) of 3.65 and ×2=20.72. Consequently, there is high static importance for locus A p<0,001. For locus B, In EOLP for HLA B8, RR=6. 7 ×2=37.64 and p<0,001. ROLP has shown association with HLA A3, where RR=2. 31 and ×2 =9.14 and p<0.05.

Conclusions: In ROLP A3 antigen and in EOLP A9 and A8 may be considered as carriers with proneness to OLP.


Introduction: Homocystein (Hcy) is an amino acid and elevated plasma cause endothelial damage, followed with inflammation in the blood vessels and its progression in atherosclerosis. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between cardiovascular disease and serum homocysteine levels..

Methods: We performed a case control analysis of 212 patients, either for cardiovascular risk stratification or for invasive diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular ischemic disease (CAD). Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1. Patients with low risk for CAD, with no symptoms of CAD and total of 10 years risk <10%. Group 2. High-risk patients with no symptoms of CAD, but 10 years total CAD risk of >20%. Group 3. Patients with symptomatic CAD, where angiography was performed and >50% occlusion of at least one coronary vessel was found. Group 4. Patients with carotid artery disease and documented CAD.

Results: Group 1 consists of 56 subjects, of whom 33 (60%) males and 22 (40%) females. Their mean age was 52.18±8.07 years and their average CAD risk was 5.

Group 2 included 60 patients, with average CAD risk of 23.73. There was a statistically significant difference between plasma homocysteine levels between the control and high CAD risk group, as well as between those with CAD and both CAD and CARD (p=0.001). In the high-risk subjects group, the level of homocysteine correlates albeit weak with the total CAD risk (p=0.04). Homocysteine levels correlate with the WBC count (p=0.02). In the subgroup of smokers with high CAD risk, homocysteine correlates with age, total CAD risk, total cholesterol, BUN (define BUN) and creatinine.

Group 3 consisted of 49 subjects with manifested and angiographically proven CAD, out of whom 80% were males and 20% females, mean age 56.06±9.7 years, with average 2 coronary vessels affected. There were significantly higher homocysteine plasma levels between the control group and the group with manifested CAD (p=0.008).There is no significant difference of homocysteine plasma levels between the high risk group and the group with manifested coronary artery disease (15.03□mol/l vs. 16.38□mol/l). In this group, plasma levels of homocysteine correlate only with the highest level of vessel stenosis (>95%) with (p=0.04).

The study population in group 4 showed a mean of IMT 0.9 +..09 mm and mean Hcy plasma levels of 21 + 11 µmol/L. From the evaluated patients with CAD, 82.9% of patients had elevated level of Hcy. From those, one showed elevated Hcy, 79.4 % had hypertension, 58.9 % had hyperlipidemia, 28.2% had diabetes mellitus as additional risk factors for atherosclerosis. 76.9 % of the patients had increased intima-media thickness; in 58.9 % plaques were detected, while 23 % of the patients had significant stenosis: 10.2 % with intermediate–grade stenosis (50-69%) and 12.8 % with high-grade stenosis (70-99 %). 17.1 % of the patients had normal level of Hcy, and in those ones 62.5 % only had increased IMT. We found linear correlation between IMT and HCy levels (r 0.7, p 0.05).

Case control analysis showed significant higher level of Hcy in the group with CAD and carotid artery disease vs. CAD group (p 0.001).

Conclusion:High plasma homocysteine concentrations are associated with high risk for vascular disease and consequently CAD itself and carotid artery disease, as well, proving its likely role in the development of atherosclerosis on inflammatory and metabolic levels.


Prof. Peter Ivanovich was born in Tacoma, Washington, USA on November 9, 1928, and died in Chicago on November 16, 2019.

After being educated by the father of chronic hemodialysis, Belding Scribner, in Seattle, P. Ivanovich devotes himself to the study of hemodialysis and its treatment in patients with chronic terminal renal failure.

From 1971 he worked at the Northwestern University School of Medicine in Chicago where he created a hemodialysis unit at the Veteran Affairs Hospital.

In the well-equipped hemodialysis unit, the latest hemodialysis techniques were studied and new drugs were tested. Numerous doctors from all over the world, as well as from Macedonia, visited and researched at the unit with P. Ivanovich.

P. Ivanovich has frequently visited Macedonia and the former Yugoslavia, where he participated with his lectures. He helped in the development of nephrology in the Balkan Peninsula.

Significant is his participation in the First Scientific Meeting of the Nephrologists of Yugoslavia, Struga, 26-28. IX 1977 and in the creation of BANTAO in Ohrid on 9. IX 1993 - during the First Congress of the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs.

Prof. P. Ivanovich is in the lasting memory of the nephrologists of North Macedonia as a renowned nephrologist, cosmopolitan and friend of patients and doctors.


It is really difficult to live in a society in which the human contact is decreasing each day, and where stressful situations become unavoidable. In order to be healthy and have a healthy lifestyle, the coping style plays a huge role.

Witnessing this situation every day, the aim of this research is to investigate the connection among psychosomatic tendencies, different coping styles and locus of control in young adults, aged from 24 to 34 years, in the Republic of North Macedonia.

The evaluated sample consists of 187 (M=47; F=140) participants, randomly selected, who accepted to be the part of the research by filling in the on-line questionnaires, delivered through Google forms. The short demographic questionnaire and three psychological instruments were used: Cybernetic Battery of Conjunctive tests KON-6, CISS-21 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E).

Spearman’s correlation was used in order to check and approve the connectedness among psychosomatic tendencies, coping styles and locus of control.

The obtained results confirm that there is a significant correlation among tendencies towards psychosomatic reaction, coping styles and locus of control among young adults in the Republic of North Macedonia.