To assess different types of adnexal masses as identified by 3T MRI and to discuss the added value of diffusion techniques compared with conventional sequences.
Patients and methods
174 women age between 13 and 87 underwent an MRI examination of the pelvis for a period of three years. Patients were examined in two radiology departments – 135 of them on 3 Tesla MRI Siemens Verio and 39 on 3 Tesla MRI Philips Ingenia. At least one adnexal mass was diagnosed in 98 patients and they are subject to this study. Some of them were reviewed retrospectively. Data from patients’ history, physical examination and laboratory tests were reviewed as well.
124 ovarian masses in 98 females’ group of average age 47.2 years were detected. Following the MRI criteria, 59.2% of the cases were considered benign, 30.6% malignant and 10.2% borderline. Out of all masses 58.1% were classified as cystic, 12.9% as solid and 29% as mixed. Оf histologically proven tumors 74.4% were benign and 25.6% were malignant. All of the malignant tumors had restricted diffusion. 64 out of all patients underwent contrast enhancement. (34 there were a subject of contraindications). 39 (61%) of the masses showed contrast enhancement.
Classifying adnexal masses is essential for the preoperative management of the patients. 3T MRI protocols, in particular diffusion techniques, increase significantly the accuracy of the diagnostic assessment.
Asbestos exposure is associated with the development of pleural plaques as well as malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos fibres activate macrophages, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The expression of IL-1β may be influenced by genetic variability of IL1B gene or regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). This study investigated the effect of polymorphisms in IL1B and MIR146A genes on the risk of developing pleural plaques and MM.
Subjects and methods
In total, 394 patients with pleural plaques, 277 patients with MM, and 175 healthy control subjects were genotyped for IL1B and MIR146A polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used in statistical analysis.
We found no association between MIR146A and IL1B genotypes, and the risk of pleural plaques. MIR146A rs2910164 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13–0.73, p = 0.008). Carriers of two polymorphic alleles had a lower risk of developing MM, even after adjustment for gender and age (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14–0.85, p = 0.020). Among patients with known asbestos exposure, carriers of at least one polymorphic IL1B rs1143623 allele also had a lower risk of MM in multivariable analysis (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28–0.92, p = 0.025). The interaction between IL1B rs1143623 and IL1B rs1071676 was significantly associated with an increased risk of MM (p = 0.050).
Our findings suggest that genetic variability of inflammatory mediator IL-1β could contribute to the risk of developing MM, but not pleural plaques.
Survival of children with cancer in Eastern and Central Europe is 10–20% lower than in high income European countries. We evaluated outcome of children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia and in Romania.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively analysed event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients treated in Slovenia and Croatia. Slovakia included patients from two centers, representing half of expected cases. Romania included patients from single institution, representing only 10% of expected patients. Joint database for analysis was established.
One hundred seventy-eight children and adolescent with RMS diagnosed from January 2000 to December 2015 were included. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 7.7 years, one third was older than 10 years. Twenty-five percent had alveolar histology and 72% unfavorable location. Higher than expected proportion of patients had nodal involvement (24%) or metastatic disease (27%). All patients received systemic chemotherapy, 57% had radiotherapy and 63% surgery as local control. Kaplan- Meier estimates for 5-year EFS and OS were 50.7% and 59.6%, respectively. Five-year OS for patients with localised disease was 72% compared to 24% for metastatic disease.
Children with RMS treated in Eastern and Central Europe have inferior outcome compared to their counterparts treated in high income European countries. Active participation of low health expenditures average rates (LHEAR) countries in international clinical trials may improve outcome of paediatric oncology patients.
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. Lipid accumulation in the liver triggers inflammation and leads to NAFLD. Prolonged inflammation will worsen the disease progression. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-12, plays a role in the inflammatory process. This study aimed to determine the association between IL-12 and NAFLD severity.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and July 2019 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital Medan, Indonesia. Subjects were patients aged 18 years or older diagnosed with NAFLD based on ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were excessive alcohol consumption, other primary liver diseases, malignancies, and cardio-metabolic disturbances. Serum IL-12 level was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The severity of NAFLD was assessed using the BARD score and NAFLD fibrosis score.
Results: A total of 100 subjects were enrolled with male predominant. The mean age of subjects was 54.97 ± 8.85 years, and the most frequent comorbidity was obesity. Most subjects had mild to moderate disease progression. Serum IL-12 level was higher in more severe NAFLD based on ultrasound grading (P < 0.001), BARD score (P = 0.003), and NAFLD fibrosis score (P = 0.005). A positive correlation was observed between serum IL-12 level and BARD score (P < 0.001) with sufficient accuracy (AUC = 0.691, P = 0.014).
Conclusion: Serum IL-12 level was associated with the severity of NAFLD. Higher serum IL-12 level was observed in more severe NAFLD progression.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) presents as locally advanced disease in a majority of patients and is prone to relapse despite aggressive treatment. Since immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown clinically significant efficacy in patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC (R/M HNSCC), a plethora of trials are investigating their role in earlier stages of disease. At the same time, preclinical data showed the synergistic role of concurrently administered radiotherapy and ICIs (immunoradiotherapy) and explained several mechanisms behind it. Therefore, this approach is prospectively tested in a neoadjuvant, definitive, or adjuvant setting in non-R/M HNSCC patients. Due to the intricate relationship between host, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. In this narrative review we present the biological background of immunoradiotherapy, as well as a rationale for, and possible flaws of, each treatment approach, and provide readers with a critical summary of completed and ongoing trials.
While immunotherapy with ICIs has already become a standard part of treatment in patients with R/M HNSCC, its efficacy in a non-R/M HNSCC setting is still the subject of extensive clinical testing. Irradiation can overcome some of the cancer’s immune evasive manoeuvres and can lead to a synergistic effect with ICIs, with possible additional benefits of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of this combination is not robust and details in trial design and treatment delivery seem to be of unprecedented importance.
The aim of this project was to collect real-world evidence and describe treatment patterns for stage III non-small cell lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe. Based on real-world evidence, an expert opinion was developed, and the unmet needs and quality indicators were identified.
Patients and methods
A systematic literature search and a multidisciplinary expert panel of 10 physicians from 7 countries used a modified Delphi process to identify quality indicators and unmet needs in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. The profound questionnaire was used to characterize treatment patterns used for stage III non-small cell lung cancer, and a systematic review identified patterns in Central and Eastern Europe. The first questionnaire was completed by a group of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and pneumologists. The panel of experts attended an in-person meeting to review the results of the questionnaire and to process a second round Delphi. An additional survey was then compiled and completed by the panel.
A complete consensus was reached by the panel of experts on a set of evidence-based clinical recommendations. The experience-based questionnaire generated a highly variable map of treatment patterns within the region. A list of unmet needs and barriers to quality care were developed with near-unanimous consent of the panel of experts.
The current landscape of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in Central and Eastern European countries is highly variable. We identified several significant barriers, mainly related to the availability of diagnostic and imaging methods and low rates of chemoradiotherapy with curative intention as initial treatment for unresectable stage III NSCLC.
Two prospective randomized studies analysing cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases and rapid development of systemic adjuvant therapy have changed our approach to stage III CM treatment. The aim of this study was to compare results of retrospective survival analysis of stage III CM patients’ treatment from Slovenian national CM register to leading international clinical guidelines.
Patients and methods
Since 2000, all Slovenian CM patients with primary tumour ≥ TIb are treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and data are prospectively collected into a national CM registry. A retrospective analysis of 2426 sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies and 789 lymphadenectomies performed until 2015 was conducted using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests.
Positive SLN was found in 519/2426 (21.4%) of patients and completion dissection (CLND) was performed in 455 patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of CLND group was 58% vs. 47% of metachronous metastases group (MLNM) (p = 0.003). The 5-year OS of patients with lymph node (LN) metastases and unknown primary site (UPM) was 45% vs. 21% of patients with synchronous LN metastasis. Patients with SLN tumour burden < 0.3 mm had 5-year OS similar to SLN negative patients (86% vs. 85%; p = 0.926). The 5-year OS of patients with burden > 1.0 mm was similar to the MLNM group (49% vs. 47%; p = 0.280).
Stage III melanoma patients is a heterogeneous group with significant OS differences. CLND after positive SLNB might still remain a method of treatment for selected patients with stage III.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered one of the most frequent chronic gastrointestinal diseases globally with high costs due to treatment and investigations.
First line therapy is with proton pump inhibitors, those who do not respond to initial treatment usually require further investigations such as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or ambulatory 24-hours esophageal pH monitoring. The total time of exposure to acid and the DeMeester score represent the most useful parameters associated with conventional pH-metry, because they can identify gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Although pH-metry is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux disease, new impedance-based parameters have been introduced in recent years with the role of increasing the accuracy of diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterizing the type of reflux. The development of multichannel intraluminal pH-impedance has improved the ability to detect and quantify gastroesophageal reflux. New parameters such as post-reflux swallowing peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and the mean nocturnal basal impedance (MNBI) have recently been introduced to assess GERD phenotypes more accurately. This review evaluates current GERD diagnotic tools while also taking a brief look at newer diagnostic parameters like PSPW and MNBI.
Background: The objective of our present study is to assess the relation between persistent fatigue and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity and its functional impact and to determine if the positive effect of biologics on fatigue is due to good disease response or to a different pathway.
Methods: A study cohort of patients with established RA was conducted. We included patients who were initiation a biologic after at least failure of one conventional synthetic Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug synthetic (csDMARDs). At baseline, patients had a moderately to highly active disease. Demographic characteristics, disease activity and functional impact were assessed by disease activity score (DAS28CRP) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Fatigue was evaluated by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale questionnaire (FACIT-F). Patients were examined before initiating biotherapy, then after three months and six months.
Results: Thirty women with RA, with a mean age of 52.5 years, were included. At baseline, 57% received anti-TNFα: Etanercept (n=9), Adalimumab (n=6), Infliximab (n=2) and 43% received Rituximab. Good Eular response was obtained in 80% of patients at the third month and 97% of patients at the sixth month. In the analytic study, a significant amelioration after 3 months of biotherapy was found in both disease response (DAS28CRP) and fatigue (FACITF), respectively (p=0.01,p<0.001 and p<0.001). The disease activity decreased significantly also after sixth month (p=0.01, p<0.001 and p=0.012). In the linear multivariate analysis, the regression of visual analogic pain (VAS pain) was the only predictors of the improvement of fatigue.
Conclusion: Biologics contribute to improve fatigue in patients with established RA and this effect seems to be independent from the clinical efficacy of this treatment.
The aim of the study was to quantify planned doses to the heart and specific cardiac substructures in free-breathing adjuvant three-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (t-IMRT) for left-sided node-negative breast cancer, and to assess the differences in planned doses to organs at risk according to patients’ individual anatomy, including breast volume.
Patients and methods
In the study, the whole heart and cardiac substructures were delineated for 60 patients using cardiac atlas. For each patient, 3D-CRT and t-IMRT plans were generated. The prescribed dose was 42.72 Gy in 16 fractions. Patients were divided into groups with small, medium, and large clinical target volume (CTV). Calculated dose distributions were compared amongst the two techniques and the three different groups of CTV.
Mean absorbed dose to the whole heart (MWHD) (1.9 vs. 2.1 Gy, P < 0.005), left anterior descending coronary artery mean dose (8.2 vs. 8.4 Gy, P < 0.005) and left ventricle (LV) mean dose (3.0 vs. 3.2, P < 0.005) were all significantly lower with 3D-CRT technique compared to t-IMRT. Apical (8.5 vs. 9.0, P < 0.005) and anterior LV walls (5.0 vs. 5.4 Gy, P < 0.005) received the highest mean dose (Dmean). MWHD and LV-Dmean increased with increasing CTV size regardless of the technique. Low MWHD values (< 2.5 Gy) were achieved in 44 (73.3%) and 41 (68.3%) patients for 3D-CRT and t-IMRT techniques, correspondingly.
Our study confirms a considerable range of the planned doses within the heart for adjuvant 3D-CRT or t-IMRT in node-negative breast cancer. We observed differences in heart dosimetric metrics between the three groups of CTV size, regardless of the radiotherapy planning technique.