Prolonged labour can lead to postpartum complications and adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. Measurable parameters can help in the active management of labour, timely diagnosis of dystocia and in the choice of the method of delivery. Progressive uterine contractions are necessary to complete labour successfully. Myometrial fatigue during prolonged labour causes a change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, resulting in an accumulation of intramuscular lactic acid and probably a subsequent increase in amniotic fluid lactate concentration. High amniotic fluid lactate level has been associated with ineffective uterine contractions leading to labour arrest. A considerable number of studies conducted so far indicate that the level of lactate in amniotic fluid may be a new non-invasive diagnostic tool for early prediction of prolonged labour and the need for immediate obstetric intervention. Low amniotic fluid lactate level may facilitate a decision to continue vaginal labour by oxytocin augmentation. A high level of amniotic fluid lactate is associated with surgical obstetric procedures. Measuring amniotic fluid lactate level might simplify the patient’s allocation to a group, which will benefit from the administration of oxytocin and to a group that will not benefit from further prolongation of labour. This study aimed to briefly review current knowledge on amniotic fluid lactate concentrations measured using standard biochemical methods during the first stage of labour following normal pregnancy, as a possible diagnostic tool for prolonged labour. For this purpose, PubMed, EMBASE, Medline (1990 to July 2020) trials register and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.
The beneficial effect of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on completely resected pathological IIIA-N2 (pIIIA-N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a subject of interest with controversy. The aim of the study was to distinguish the clinical efficacy of PORT on lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) among pIIIA-N2 NSCLC.
Patients and methods
Between October 2010 and September 2016, 288 consecutive patients with completely resected pIIIA-N2 NSCLC at Beijing Chest Hospital were retrospectively analyzed, which consisted of 194 cases of LADC and 85 cases of LSCC. There were 42 (21.6%) patients treated with PORT in LADC cases and 19 (22.3%) patients treated with PORT in LSCC cases. The 5-year overall survival (OS), loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic factors were determined using Cox’s regression model.
Among 194 cases of LADC, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in the PORT group were 95.2%, 61.9% and 40.0%, respectively, while in the non-PORT group were 90.1%, 63.3% and 45.0% (p = 0.948). The use of postoperative chemotherapy (POCT) and smoking index ≥ 400 were both prognostic factors of 5-year rates of OS, LRFS and DMFS. On the other hand, among 85 cases of LSCC, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in the PORT group were 94.7%, 63.2% and 63.2%, respectively, whereas in the non-PORT group were 86.4%, 48.5% and 37.1% (p = 0.026). In this group, only the use of PORT was a favorable prognostic factor for 5-year OS, LRFS and DMFS.
Due to clinicopathological differences among completely resected pIIIA-N2 NSCLC, PORT may not be suitable to all patients. Our study distinguishes pIIIA-N2 LSCC from LADC by their positive responses to PORT.
One of the greatest neuro-oncological concern remains the lack of knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas. Several studies reported a strict correlation between radiological features and biological behaviour of gliomas; in this way the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) correlate with lower grade glioma aggressiveness. However, there are no the same strong evidences for high grade gliomas (HGG) because of the lack of several preoperative MRI.
Patients and methods
We describe a series of 4 patients affected by HGG followed from 2014 to January 2019. Two patients are male and two female; two had a pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM), one of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and one had a neuroradiological diagnosis of GBM. The VDE and the acceleration time (AT) was calculated for fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) volume and for the enhancing nodule (EN). Every patients underwent sequential MRI study along a mean period of 413 days.
Mean VDE evaluated on FLAIR volume was 39.91 mm/year. Mean percentage ratio between peak values and mean value of acceleration was 282.7%. Median appearance time of EN after first MRI scan was 432 days. Mean VDE was 45.02 mm/year. Mean percentage ratio between peak values and mean value of acceleration was 257.52%.
To our knowledge, this is the first report on VDE and acceleration growth in HGG confirming their strong aggressiveness. In a case in which we need to repeat an MRI, time between consecutive scans should be reduced to a maximum of 15–20 days and surgery should be executed as soon as possible.
BACKGROUND. Starting from the European and American guidelines regarding sedation during gastrointestinal investigations and continuing with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) recommendations, we have developed a software that helps the ENT specialist to decide whether the patient can undergo a moderate sedation in the operating room, or in the outpatient office, during the drug-induced sleep endoscopy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. The application is written in C#, using the. NET Framework, and is available for the Windows operating system. The application has a very simple and user-friendly interface, and a bare-bones implementation, focusing strictly on the decision-making process.
RESULTS. The application involves the information obtained from patient history, clinical examination and polysomnography. After filling all the patient’s data, it will show the result that can be one of the following: ”treatment can be ambulatory”, “treatment should be done in the hospital” or “treatment is not recommended”.
CONCLUSION. The decision-making software application may substitute the evaluation of the anaesthesiologist during drug-induced sleep endoscopy in certain conditions.
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a very rare aggressive hematopoietic malignancy. The median survival is approximately 12 months, and for patients >65 years the survival rate is 7 months, when only chemotherapy is administered. Clinically, it is characterized by skin involvement and most often bone marrow lesions accompanied by lymphadenopathy and in some cases hepato- and/or splenomegaly. The diagnosis is based on histopathological examination of the skin or bone marrow lesions and tumor cell immunophenotyping. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. Therapeutic decisions are based only on the results of a few retrospective analyses and case reports. This article presents the important role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of BPDCN.
Caplan’s syndrome, known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, was first described by Anthony Caplan in 1953, who identified a rare lung disorder found in coal mine workers with rheumatoid arthritis. Although Caplan’s syndrome was found in patients with a variety of pneumoconioses, it mostly affects individuals with long exposure to crystalline silica. We present a case of Caplan’s syndrome in a patient with advanced stage of rheumatoid arthritis and silicosis.
Entrapment syndromes of the upper limb are common neuro-muscular-skeletal pathology in musician instrumentists. From this group of morbid entities, the most prevalent worldwide is carpal tunnel syndrome closely followed by the cubital tunnel syndrome and de Quervain stenosing tenosynovitis. Due to their distinctive etiopathogenic correlation with exposure to specific occupational factors linked to instrument interpretation and professional environment, these diseases raise a medical challenge and constitute a socioeconomic and professional burden with legal branchings and implications for individuals and society. These syndromes develop isolated or more often in various associations with each other in a clinical pattern that has been described under the model of “double crush” syndrome by Upton and McComas. From its inception in 1973 until the present time, this clinical model has been a point of interesting debate between various specialists worldwide. This model underlines an already lesioned neuron’s susceptibility and vulnerability for further neural damage at a different level from the initial lesion. The sophisticated clinical presentation of this “double or multiple crush” syndrome is due not only to overlapping symptomatology from each contributing neuro-muscular-skeletal pathology or lesional site but also to other local or systemic conditions such as trauma, diabetes, osteoarthritis, thyroid disease, obesity, etc. The occupational factors such as repetitive movements, strain and overload, vibrations, ergonomics, and others all contribute to the creation and progression of the morbid process. We cannot overstate the implications of understanding these complex relations and interdependencies between the factors mentioned above as they are essential not only for the diagnosis of these neuropathies but also for the treatment, rehabilitation, and occupational reinsertion of the patients. The studies support the fact that both lesional sites need to be medically addressed for an optimal outcome and resolution. We present the case of a female violinist with bilateral multiple neuro-muscular-skeletal pathologies of the upper limb treated previously invasively and conservatively over several years by various specialists without a satisfactory clinical resolution of the symptomatology or any professional and legal measures taken.
The impact of the mutation status on the clinical course and the outcome of essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients has not yet been completely established. A total of 171 patients with diagnosed ET were tested and subsequently grouped, according to their mutation status – Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) – 112 patients, calreticulin (CALR) – 36 patients, and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) – 5 patients. Moreover, 18 individuals were triple-negative (with non-mutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL). CALR-mutated patients preferentially were male, with higher platelets (PLT) counts (mean PLT = 1 002.3) and lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at the diagnosis, compared to the JAK2 (mean PLT = 933.6), MPL (mean PLT = 940.8) and triple-negative patients (mean PLT = 822.6) (p = 0.0035). The patients with CALR mutated, and the triple-negative ones had a lower risk of arterial and venous thrombosis (3% and 5.6% cases at the time of diagnosis, respectively) than the patients with JAK2 mutation (7.2%) (p = 0.9210). The overall survival rate did not differ statistically between the groups.