In the perspective of the General Theory of Fighting Arts, an analysis of socio-cultural factors that determine the opposition of the role of a teacher of martial arts (Jap. sensei) to the role of a sports trainers was undertaken. The structural cultural context, cultural patterns, and social institutions resulting from divergent goals were taken into account. The roles of teachers and trainers result from these conditions. The existence of the separate roles of the master-teacher in martial arts and the sports trainer was established. These roles manifest themselves in different relations with students or players. Democratic and egalitarian interactions in sports teams include player and coach relations. In traditional martial arts, the dominance of the teacher is more accepted. However, there is also a social position combining the features of the sensei and the trainer that is typical for combat sports that are also martial arts (participating in sports competitions). As there are relationships of subordination in the hierarchical societies of Japan and Korea, there is no problem with recognizing the primary role of the sensei in these cultures. The position of the master-teacher is also sanctified by tradition. Reducing educational systems, which are the paths of martial arts, to oriental varieties of sports would be a serious factual mistake.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an interdisciplinary program of Greek folk dance, with topics from history and geography on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety level. The sample consisted of 260 students (134 boys & 126 girls). The experimental group (n=144) followed the interdisciplinary four-week program (two lessons per week) while the control group (n=126) followed the corresponding typical physical education program. For the data collection, the questionnaire used was the “Goal orientation” by Papaioannou, Milosis, Kosmidou, and Tsiggilis (2002) and the Greek version (Kakkos & Zervas, 1996) of “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (Martens et al., 1990). The students filled in the questionnaires before and after their participating in each program. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and Repeated Measures ANOVA were used. Results showed that a. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory. b. Τhe experimental group decreased significantly the levels of “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and on the contrary significantly increase the “personal development”, and “social acceptance”. c. Experimental group’s boys and girls decreased their “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and enhanced their “personal development” and “social acceptance” more than their control group peers. d. The experimental group decreased the levels of somatic and cognitive anxieties and increased significantly their self-confidence. e. male students increased their self-confidence more than female students. These findings support the view that an interdisciplinary program of traditional Greek dance with issues from history and geography enable us to reduce the rates of ego-strengthening, ego-protection, somatic and cognitive anxiety while simultaneously increases students’ personal development, social acceptance, and self-confidence
This study aims to examine the motivational factors that direct individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating leisure activities. The study is designed in descriptive and relational survey models, which are among the quantitative research patterns. A total of 1677 individuals participated in the study. A personal information form and the Computer Gaming Motivation Scale were used. An independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation test were used to analyze the data. According to the results, there were significant differences in the concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization sub-dimensions of the participants in favor of the groups playing in Internet cafes. The findings indicate that when more time is spent with information and communication technologies, there is a decrease in concentration and an increase in entertainment and escape. Furthermore, when the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scale was examined, positively moderate and high correlations were found among concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization. As a result, rapid technological changes and developments provide many opportunities for individuals. It is thought that individuals’ busy work lives and monotonous daily routines cause them to prefer easily accessible activities during their leisure time.
The objective of this study was to ascertain whether happiness varies depending on sports participation and religious practice. The sample comprised 2,378 participants aged between 18 and 92 years. All analysis were carried out by testing the interaction effects of the variables of sex and age on sports participation, religious practice, and happiness. We found a high average level of happiness (M = 7.299, range 0–10). However, people who do not participate in sports or practice a religion indicated a level of happiness (M = 6.979) that was statistically lower than that of the other groups: people who practice a religion but do not participate in sports (M = 7.135); people who participate in sports but do not practice a religion (M = 7.478); and people who both participate in sports and practice a religion (M = 7.717). We conclude that happiness is associated with sports participation and religious practice, although with small or very small effect sizes (all p< 0.050; η2p between 0.008 and 0.020).
Motivation is likely a pivotal factor contributing to sports participation. In India, because of the unsupportive sports/physical education environment, girls participate less in sports and other physical activities than boys. Therefore, embedding a planned healthy environment with good social support may maximize and, consequently, increase their participation in various sports and physical activities. Considering this unabated dialogue and assuming that motivation is a pivotal need for female sports participation, this study examined the differences in motivation to participate in sports among female adolescents across three age categories: early (11–14 years old), middle (15–18 years old), and late (19–21 years old) adolescence. A total of 528 female adolescents from Assam, India participated in the study. Participation in physical education courses was the criterion for the participants, and they were invited to complete the Participation Motivation Questionnaire. A factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation using the maximum likelihood extraction method yielded a 23-item, five-factor structure that exhibited moderate internal consistency. An ANOVA revealed significant differences across all three age categories regarding all the extracted factors. Moreover, t-tests of all sub-factors identified significant differences between the two achievement levels of district-level and inter-district-level athletes. This study provides sound psychometric and comparative results that are useful for education and formative reviews in applied settings and research purposes. It also serves as a measurement tool for embedding motivation to participate in physical activities and sports among female adolescents and the development of strategic ideas to assist female adolescents from less privileged areas to experience healthy growth and a healthy lifestyle.
The emergence of virtual sports shows promises in encouraging participation among those who may be constrained from participating in traditional recreational sports (Choi et al., 2019). To maximize virtual sports’ potential in increasing sports participation, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between constraints, negotiation, negotiation-efficacy, and participation. Results from virtual golf participants found that, as predicted, (a) constraints had a negative direct influence on participation, (b) negotiation-efficacy had a negative direct influence on constraints, (c) negotiation-efficacy had a positive direct influence on negotiation, and negotiation had a positively direct influence on participation. The findings of this study indicated that reduced constraints did not result in increasing virtual golf consumers’ participation because negotiation did not play a significant role in their decision to participate. Thus, the current study provides a comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among leisure participation, constraints, and negotiation, particularly extending to the context of virtual golf.
The purpose of the present study was to verify the acute effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort, acid-base balance and intermittent isometric handgrip test performance in Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Ten male (22.2 ± 3.9 years; 174 ± 0.07 cm; 74.5 ± 8.9 kg) jiu-jitsu athletes participated in this counterbalanced double-blind crossover study. Two protocols, a) supplementation with 0.3 g.kg-1 of body weight of sodium bicarbonate, and b) supplementation with 0.045 g.kg-1 of body weight of placebo substance, were employed. Gastrointestinal tolerability was assessed by the questionnaire. Blood samples were collected at three time points (baseline, pre-ISO, and post-ISO) to determine the responses of potential hydrogenionic (pH), bicarbonate (HCO3-), base excess (EB) and lactate concentrations. The maximum voluntary contraction test and the intermittent isometric contraction test were also performed. As a result, none of the athletes reported significant gastrointestinal discomfort (p > 0.05). HCO3-, pH, and EB at the pre-ISO and post-ISO moments were significantly higher for the sodium bicarbonate protocol. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher for both post-ISO protocols (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the performance of the maximum voluntary contraction test and the intermittent isometric contraction test (p > 0.05). Thus, we conclude that sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not generate adverse responses resulting in gastrointestinal discomfort, and does not benefit performance yet promotes a state of metabolic alkalosis.
Ultra Short Race Pace training (USRPT) is an emerging training modality devised in 2011 to deviate from high-volume swimming training that is typically prescribed. USRPT aims to replicate the exact demands of racing, through its unique prescription of race-pace velocity sets with short rest intervals. It has been surmised, with little physiological evidence, that USRPT provides swimmers with the best opportunity to optimize the conditioning, technique, and psychology aspects of racing at the most specific velocity of the relevant event, with low blood lactate concentration. The aim of this study was to examine acute physiological responses of USRPT. Fourteen swimmers were recruited to perform a USRPT set: 20 x 25 m freestyle with a 35-s rest interval. Swimmers were required to maintain the velocity of their 100 m personal best time for each sprint. Sprint performance, blood lactate, heart rate and the RPE were measured. Blood lactate was taken before, during (after every 4 sprints) and 3 minutes after the USRPT protocol. Heart rate monitors were used to profile the heart rate. Athletes reported the RPE before- and after completion of the USRPT set. Sprint times increased by 3.3-10.8% when compared to the first sprint (p < 0.01). There was high blood lactate concentration (13.6 ± 3.1mmol/l), a significant change in the RPE from 8 ± 1.6 to 18 ± 1.6 (p < 0.01) and a substantially high heart rate profile with an average HRmax of 188 ± 9 BPM. The results show the maximal intensity nature of USRPT and portray it as an anaerobic style of training.
This study aimed to perform motor action and biomechanical analysis of techniques in female judo athletes separated by weight categories of 638 female bouts (103 extra lightweight <48 kg, 140 half lightweight 48>52 kg, 65 lightweight 52>57 kg, 73 half middleweight 57>63 kg, 77 middleweight 63>70 kg, 80 half heavyweight 70>78 kg and 60 heavyweight >78 kg). All bouts were analyzed following the phases of approach, gripping, defensive action, attack, also biomechanical analysis of techniques and groundwork was performed (p ≤ .05). Results indicated that lightweight athletes presented lower attempts to grip, right collar grip and left collar grip frequencies than other categories. Extra lightweight judokas presented lower right back grip and left back and sleeve grip frequencies as well as lower occurrence of techniques with arm and leg lever scored than half lightweight athletes, while half lightweight athletes demonstrated higher frequency of techniques with waist lever variable scored than lightweight ones. These findings should be considered for training prescription.