This paper presents an outbreak provoked by methicillin-resistant strains of coagulase-positive S. aureus (CPS), produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (se) in pig meatballs and potato salad consumed from 70 people in the village Mamarchevo, Bulgaria. Eighteen women aged 50 to 70 years, and two children aged 4 and 5 years have demonstrated a severe malaise with vomiting and indigestion. Two food samples and isolates of CPS were received in the laboratory of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. Both samples were found to have a high level of CPS. The level of S. aureus contamination in the potato salad was 8.3 logs CFU/g and 7.7 logs CFU/g in roasted meatballs, which was a significant reason to doubt the production of the toxin. The samples were analyzed according to the European Screening Method v5 using mini VIDAS SET2. The results showed a presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin (TV 2.67 for meatballs and TV 3.27 for potato salad), which was the reason for the ensuing food intoxication. EURL CPS applying quantitative indirect sandwich-type ELISA confirmed the presence of sea, sec and sed in the potato salad and sea and sed in the roasted meatballs. Two CPS isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by a species-specific 23S rRNA targeted PCR test. Real-time PCR method detected sea, sed, seg, sei, sej, and ser genes in S. aureus strains, found in both matrixes. Multiplex PCR method proved the existence of the mecA gene in both S. aureus strains. Resistance to cefoxitin (>16 mg/L), penicillin (>2 mg/L), kanamycin (64 mg/L) and sulfamethoxazole (>512 mg/L) was found.
The polyetiological syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is characterized by changes in patients’ hemostasis. The aim of the current research was to elucidate the main factors for the development of DIC syndrome during canine babesiosis, and to assess their correlation level. Dogs included in this study were of various breeds and sex, weighing 10-40 kg and aged 2-7 years. They were separated in two groups (n=50) according to their diagnosis to babesiosis. Oscillometry (blood pressure, pulse rate), vascular-platelet hemostasis, coagulogram, hematological, biochemical (fibrinogen, fibrin degradation product, soluble fibrin-monomer complex) and hemodynamic (circulating blood volume) assessment methods were used. The group of dogs positive on Babesia spp., had clear manifestation of DIC with 5-7% of the erythrocyte population being affected. DIC was manifested by a significant increase in soluble fibrin-monomer complex and fibrin degradation product (p<0.001), hypofibrinogenemia (p<0.001), thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), and an increase in indicators of spontaneous aggregation ability of platelets and red blood cells (p<0.001). Significant hemodynamic disorders were observed: a decrease in circulating blood volume, circulating erythrocytes volume (p<0.05), specific circulating blood volume and hematocrit value (p<0.001). The average blood pressure was reduced (p<0.001), and the Allgöwer’s shock index was increased 2 times (p<0.05). A shock of II degree (medium, subcompensated) was confirmed. Therefore, it can be concluded that acute spontaneous dogs’ babesiosis can be characterized by the occurrence of DIC in a consumption coagulopathy form, and shock of II degree. This condition renders the patients for emergency admission.
We hypothesized that a single dose of PGF2α belatedly injected on day 8 after GnRH-1 in cows receiving a 7-day Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH – 7 days – PGF2α – 56h – GnRH – 16h – timed AI) will increase the proportion of cows with complete luteolysis. At day 35±3 postpartum, 70 lactating Holstein cows from one herd were scored for body condition and pre-synchronized with PGF2α and GnRH (3 days apart) and 7 days later submitted to an Ovsynch-56 protocol for first AI after random assignment to two treatments: (1) OV-7 (n=35) with an injection of PGF2α either on day 7; or (2) OV-8 (n=35) on day 8 after G1, respectively. Blood was collected before the first PGF2α, at day 7 and day 8 in OV-7 and OV-8, respectively, at AI and at 7 days after AI to assess progesterone concentration. Ten cows were classified as acyclic and were excluded from the analysis resulting in 60 cows (OV-8, n=27; OV-7, n=33). In total, more (P=0.01) OV-8 cows and more (P=0.04) primiparous OV-8 cows had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates. In addition, more (P=0.008) OV-8 cows with BCS<2.75 had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates, whereas no difference was observed between treatments among cows with BCS ≥2.75. In conclusion, delaying the application of PGF2α by 1 day reduced the percentage of primiparous cows and cows with poorer BCS having incomplete luteal regression at the time of AI.
Providing a secure airway management during general anesthesia could be problematic in some medical cases, especially when there is a risk of regurgitation and aspiration of the gastric content due to increased intragastric pressure. The current study aimed to test the applicability of two types of LMA in several animal species and to compare its effectiveness to the endotracheal intubation method in securing sealed airway respiration as an alternative to using endotracheal tubes. The study was conducted in dogs (n=33), cats (n=9), swine (n=9), rabbits (n=5), sheep (n=7) and roe deer (n=1). One or both types of laryngeal masks were used for each animal species: LMA Classic™-cLMA and LMA ProSeal™-PLMA. The assessment of each laryngeal mask was performed by determining the insertion technique, the possibilities of first-attempt insertion and malposition, the compliance with various animal species, ventilation time, cuff pressure, and sealing capacity. The highest LMA size compatility in dogs (23,87±14,30 kg) was size-3 in six and size-4 in forteen subjects; In swine (43,22±12,32 kg), size-4; In rabbits (3,84±0,36 kg) size-1; and in sheep (48,29±4,65 kg) size-3 and size-4. Ventilation time was highest in swine and roe deer (121,11±42,85 min and 300,00 min, respectively) and lowest in cat (28,33±16,96 min). First-attempt LMA insertion success was lowest in rabbits (60%), and highest in sheep and roe deer (100%). Malposition was with highest rate in rabbits (40%) and lowest in cat, sheep and roe deer (0%). Gastric reflux was most frequently observed in sheep (71,4%) and roe deer (100%). The usage of LMA in the veterinary anesthetic practice significantly improves airway management in animals during general anesthesia. The inflated LMA cuff does not prevent its disposition. Therefore, both the drain and respiratory tubes must be fixed. The usage of LMA in rabbits was associated with higher incidence of malposition and other complications. Our findings suggest that LMA designed for humans can be used for airway management in veterinary medicine.
Tick-borne diseases are highly prevalent in domestic and wild ruminants and they may be distributed in wide geographical ranges by animal transportation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of European strains of Babesia spp. and/or Anaplasma spp. in oversea imported reindeer specimens. Imported specimens (n=7) were hospitalized with visible tick infestation (Ixodes ricinus) and signs of cachexia, anemia, and hemoglobinuria. Using blood smears, PCR, and BLAST comparisons, it was confirmed that the animals were infected with a French strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia divergens which is considered to be absent in the USA. We conclude that oversea importation of reindeers must be followed with a routine check for geographically-specific strains of pathogens from the place of origin. This monitoring process must be dynamic and according to recent reports of tick-borne pathogens.
Twinning induction of single-bearing Noemi ewes is an important avenue to maximize the economic feasibility of sheep production. Sixty Noemi ewes were used and randomly assigned to six treatment groups (n=10/group).Two sources of FSH [i.e., porcine (P) vs. human (H)] were given as a single dose or in six doses. The control 1 group was given a single dose of saline (C1), while the control 2 group was given six doses of saline (C6). Ewes in group 3 (P1) were given a single dose of p-FSH, in group 4 six doses of p-FSH (P6), in group 5 a single dose of h-FSH (H1), and in group 6 six doses of h-FSH (H6). The ewes were inserted with CIDR for 10 days with FSH given on day 8. A fertile ram was used at the onset of estrus. Blood samples were collected for hormone analyses. The time between CIDR removal and onset of estrus (63, 38 and 26 hrs. in C, P, and H, respectively) was shortened by FSH administration. FSH increased the incidence of twinning, however single dose resulted in more stillbirths and mortalities. The neonatal survival rate decreased in the P1 (40%) compared to the P6 (65%) treatments. Both sources of FSH raised progesterone and estradiol 17-β compared to the controls. Contrariwise, both h- and p-FSH reduced T4; however, h-but not p-FSH raised T3. In conclusion, using rh-FSH at six descending doses of a total 180 IU in Noemi ewes produced two viable neonates. Moreover, the exogenous FSH raised the sex hormones and T3 in the ewes.
Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito species spreading throughout Europe and its presence in North Macedonia was recorded in 2016. Following the first detection in September 2018, we conducted a two-week mosquito monitoring by ovitraps in order to determine if there were established populations of Aedes albopictus in Skopje, the capital of North Macedonia. Ninety-four Ae. albopictus eggs (0 to 18 eggs per ovitrap per week) were collected from 7 (14%) ovitraps in 3 (30%) municipalities. Thirty-eight eggs (40.4%) successfully hatched and the adult mosquitoes were identified by morphology and PCR. No other potentially invasive species were identified during the monitoring period. Ae. albopictus distribution is expanding and poses a risk for an Aedes-borne disease transmission in North Macedonia. The available data highlight the need for a regular monitoring for tiger mosquitoes to plan adequate control measures.
The present study was aimed to evaluate hematological and oxidative stress parameters in domestic dogs infested naturally (n=10) by Rhipicephalus sp. to compare with non-infested dogs (n=10). All blood samples were collected from brachial vein into tubes EDTA for the hematological analysis such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (HGB) and platelets (PLT). Serum was rapidly separated after centrifugation and stored at -20 °C until it was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 2,2’-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) inhibition measurements. HGB in non-infested dogs was significantly higher than in infested dogs (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in RBCs, WBCs and PLT between both groups (P>0.05). The mean of MDA concentration was high in infested dogs (0.92±0.62 nmol/ml) compared to non-infested dogs (0.75±0.25 nmol/ml). On the other hand, the percentage of ABTS inhibition was similar in both groups (P=0.71). High tick number seems significantly affected WBCs (P<0.0001) and HGB (P<0.001) in infested dogs. Concerning oxidative status, there was no significant differences (P>0.05) between low and high infested dogs, neither in the amount of MDA nor in the ABTS inhibition. In conclusion, infested dogs induced RBCs alterations, which coincided with the oxidative damage, as evidenced by MDA serum levels. Also, there was a relationship between the tick number in infested dogs and the hematological parameters.
It is well known in cattle that reproductive disorders are intimately associated with low or high body condition score (BCS). However, little is known concerning the relationship between BCS and oxidative stress, particularly in the reproductive tract. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative stress biomarkers according to cows BCS values in the plasma, ovaries, oviductal, follicular and uterine fluids. The study was conducted on 58 cows classified in four classes (1, 2, 3 and 4) of BCS varying from1-1.5, 2-2.5, 3-3.5 and 4-4.5, respectively. The genital tracts and plasma were collected from slaughtered cows and processed within 5h after slaughtering. The number of ovarian follicles was measured using ultrasonography and the oxidative stress was assessed by considering total antioxidant status (TAS), catalase activity (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The results showed that follicles number was significantly affected by BCS; cows with medium BCS (3) presented higher number of follicles than cows with low or high BCS (<3 or >3). Overall, BCS affects significantly the oxidative stress status at different levels of the reproductive tract. Cows with medium BCS (3) showed the best oxidative status than those with low or high values (BCS <3 or >3). In conclusion, the current results suggest that reproductive disorders observed in cows with low or high BCS values could be mediated through oxidative stress affecting consequently the reproductive tract and finally compromising fertility outputs.
A one-day-old female Holstein calf was presented with subcutaneous masses spread over the whole body. Macroscopically, the masses were firm in touch, greyish-white in colour, 0.5-2 cm in diameter range. Histopathological examination confirmed the cutaneous Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE). Microscopic examination of the tumor revealed sheets of spindled endothelial cells forming vascular slits. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells and capillaries gave strongly positive reaction for CD31 while vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were negative. In this case, macroscopical, detailed histhopathological and immunohistochemical findings of congenital KHE reported firstly in a newborn calf.