The article responds to the current variability of research into linguistic laws and the explanation of these laws. We show basic features to approach linguistic laws in the field of quantitative linguistics and research on linguistic laws outside the field of language and text. Language laws are usually explained in terms of the language system—especially as economizing—or of the information structure of the text (Piantadosi 2014). One of the hallmarks of the transmission of linguistic laws outside the realm of language and text is that they provide other kinds of explanations (Torre et al. 2019). We want to show that the problem of linguistics in the explanation of linguistic laws lies primarily in its inability to clarify the internal structure of language material, and the influence of the theory or method used for sample processing on the result of law analysis—which was formulated by Peter Grzybek (2006). We would like to show that this is the reason why linguistics avoids explanations of linguistic laws.
The premise of this paper is that there are three distinct and hierarchical ‘categories of knowledge’ (Pharoah 2018). The first of these is physiological knowledge which is acquired over generations through the interaction between replicating lineages and the environment. This interaction facilitates the evolution of meaningful physiological structures, forms, functions, and qualitative ascriptions. Second, there is phenomenal knowledge which is qualified by the utilisation of real-time experience to effect an individuated spatiotemporal subjective perspective. This capability requires sophisticated cognitive capabilities. Conceptual knowledge is the third category and constitutes a network of abstracted principles about the spatiotemporal and phenomenal world of experience. From this starting premise, I argue that human knowledge can still be viewed as impoverished because of the absence of the next category which has not yet emerged. I suggest that this category will be apparent when a fuller understanding is acquired concerning the dynamic nature of concept construction and structuring. This will demand a transdisciplinary and multimodal approach.
The main objective of this corpus-based study is to research the most frequent two-word collocations in the corpus of nursing scientific articles and compare this newly assembled list of nursing collocations with the Academic Collocation List (ACL). The nursing scientific articles corpus (NSAC) used in this study comprises 1,119,441 words from 262 articles of 10 high-quality journals from the Medical Library Association list which nursing students can freely access. The focus is on noun-noun and noun-adjective collocations. The selected articles were converted into txt files using the ABBYY Fine Reader. WordSmith Tools 7.0 and TermeX were used for noun and collocation extraction. The newly assembled Nursing Collocation List (NCL) and the ACL were compared using Microsoft Excel 2016. A total of 488 collocations were identified in the NSAC and the NCL contains 234 (47.9%) noun + noun and 254 (52.1%) adjective + noun collocation combinations. The most frequent two-word collocation is health care and it appeared 618 times in the NSAC. The ACL (2,469) and the NCL (488) share 123 two-word collocations. Although there are some correspondences between collocations in the two corpora, key nursing collocations with notably higher frequencies are identified in the NSAC (365). Despite the fact that the ACL is the most extensive collocation list across different academic fields and it certainly plays an important role in teaching English as a foreign language, this study suggests that it does not provide key nursing collocations for improvement of nursing collocation competence.
The paper examines the application of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in English language classes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was designed as an empirical examination of the attitudes of teachers and students on the successful application of computer assisted language learning in English language classrooms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Lack of motivation is one the problems that most teachers are faced with. There are many causes of poor motivation, but one of them is certainly the unattractiveness and dullness of traditional methods, teaching materials and resources. However, many authors with educational experience point out that the use of information technology can positively influence students’ motivation and encourage them to work actively. While adults, as digital immigrants, might not use modern information technology excessively, children and teens are true digital natives, who have grown up with the latest technologies and use them with great pleasure in all aspects of their lives adapting them to their needs (Prensky, 2001). The results obtained in this research are an indicator of the current attitude of teachers and students towards these issues, but they also highlight some important necessary reforms in the field of teacher education.
The article departs from the Teilhardean opposition of the inside (le dedans) and the outside (le dehors), notions of reflection and self-enclosure (enroulement sur lui-même), and an experimental law of recurrence (une loi expérimentale de recurrence). The author supplements them with his own apparatus of simplex-complex transformations as an epistemic principle and a set of related practices. The article starts with quantum emergence, forging its inside and outside by an interface and an alternative way to represent it as Diracean membrane, branes of the string theory, and the eigenform. The interface instrumentality for operating the inside and outside of the quantum allows their structured totality to enact agency potential. Simplex-complex transformations allow to represent an evolutionary series of agency transformations as modules of a single model up to a developed human self. The article discusses the recurrence, enclosure, and other trickeries of emergence as well as their representation with the help of cognitive metaphors likme Ouroboros or mathematical formalisms like the Moebius strip. It proceeds to chemical catalysis and autocatalysis, further to emergence of autopoiesis, and finally to biogenesis. Forms of life internalize environmental productive factor (Umwelt) by duplication, recursion, enclosing, folding, etc. to evolve a series of codes, making up integral genetic agency and genome as its key vehicle. The article considers organismic symbiosis and respective autocatalytic recursions, addresses the emergence of signal systems and cognition, which is parallel to and duplicating neural processes. It discusses primary cognitive abilities and their further autocatalytic transformations into a range of more advanced capabilities, along with the emergence of higher levelhigher-level signal systems. Finally, it ends up by discussing anthropogenesis and stepwise emergence and advancement of human language and thought in a series of internalizations of communicative contexts (frames, typical communicative settings, mementoes and typical remembrances, etc.) into codes of the first, second, and further orders.
This article introduces and discusses an empirical investigation that aimed to establish how pre-service teachers of English (hereinafter “participants”) framed their perceptions of Canvas, a learning management system (LMS), in their studies of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In the present study, the participants and their respective controls (i.e., non-teacher EFL students) were requested to write a short reflective essay associated with the use of the LMS in their EFL course. All participants and the control group used Canvas as their LMS. The corpus of the participants’ and controls’ reflective essays was analysed qualitatively by means of framing analysis. The results of the qualitative framing analysis revealed that whilst there were similarities in the participants’ and controls’ framing, the corpus of the participants’ essays involved instances of framing that were specific to the participants’ perceptions of Canvas. These findings and their linguo-didactic implications were further presented in the article.
The code is meaningless unless translated. (Monod 1971, 143)
We address issues of a description of the origin and evolution of the genetic code from the semiotics standpoint. Developing the concept of codepoiesis introduced by M. Barbieri, a new idea of semio-poiesis is proposed. Semio-poiesis, a recursive auto-referential processing of a semiotic system, becomes a form of organization of the bio-world when and while notions of meaning and aiming are introduced into it. The description of the genetic code as a semiotic system (grammar and vocabulary) allows us to apply the method of internal reconstruction to it: on the basis of heterogeneity and irregularity of the current state, to explicate possible previous states and various ways of forming coding and textualization mechanisms. The revealed patterns and irregularities are consistent with hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the genetic code.
This article contributes to this special journal issue by developing concepts and methods from social semiotics to analyse, interpret and comment on text and ideas from the issue plus an RFS-project on interdisciplinarity, knowledge transfer and methodology convergence within and across STEM and HASS disciplines. It follows and extends this project’s focus on three disciplines, politics, biology and linguistics, and connects them with emerging features of contemporary knowledge production, especially complex, problematic relations between scientific and non-scientific knowledges, and new forms of operations of power on knowledge.
The article develops a modified Kuhnian framework to argue that this project can be understood as a significant intervention into a currently unfolding crisis and opportunity in knowledge. It diagnoses crises of knowledge that stem from inadequacies in traditional disciplinary organisations when confronted by challenges and “wicked problems” arising from the scale and complexity of a hyper-connected world. It sees new opportunities arising from new forms of disciplinary organization, constituted by metadisciplinary structures and functions, within a Kuhnian framework of paradigms and metaparadigms. It uses social semiotics as tool and case study, to show how disciplines can evolve into metadisciplines, and demonstrate the productivity of metadisciplines within meta- paradigm processes.