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Abstract

Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus have been said to have a two-way relationship, with diabetes leading to oral disease and periodontitis exacerbating hyperglycemia. The universal biologic mechanisms and demographic and behavioral risk drivers, underlying these associations in both directions, are also described.

Both the diseases are chronic and they are affecting large population worldwide. Periodontitis is also recognized as the sixth major complication of diabetes, while diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which has an impact on the global health and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

The aim of this article is to illustrate a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the literature, on the mutual relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases,

trying to identify if the prevalence of periodontitis is higher in diabetics or if the incidence of diabetes is greater in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, our intention is to increase the level of awareness of diabetologists and dentists about the interaction between this two pathologies.

Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management. Dental professionals can detect unrecognized potential dysglycemia and refer for medical examination. Furthermore, the control of periodontal disease may enhance glycemic control which contributes to a better control of periodontal disease.

Summary

Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a silently-progressing disorder that has become a threat in many countries. Since 2000, when the first case was recorded, the number of human AE patients in Slovakia is on continuous raise. The article presents a rare case of alveolar echinococcosis with infiltration in the adrenal gland and discusses the problems associated with differential diagnosis of the disease. In 2016, abdominal ultrasound performed due abdominal pain complaint showed the presence of cystic lesions in the right liver lobe of 54-year old female patient. During surgery, another lesion in the right adrenal gland was found, and neoplastic processes or echinococcosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. Due to unclear correlation between radiology, serology and histopathology results and endemic situation in Slovakia, molecular examination was recommended. Subsequently E. multilocularis was confirmed as etiological agent of infection. Alveolar echinococcosis is considered as a rare disease, with very few patients referred to clinicians or hospitals that sometimes have almost none existing experience with the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Therefore, the establishment of networks or reference centres specialized on management of the disease would be suitable way to provide the patients with the best care and improve the disease diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Summary

Medicinal plants have been successfully used in the ethno medicine for a wide range of diseases since ancient times. The research on natural products has allowed the discovery of biologically relevant compounds inspired by plant secondary metabolites, what contributed to the development of many chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids represent a group of therapeutically very effective plant secondary metabolites and selected molecules were shown to exert also antiparasitic activity. This work summarizes the recent knowledge generated within past three decades about potential parasitocidal activities of several flavonoids with different chemical structures, particularly on medically important flatworms such as Schistosoma spp., Fasciola spp., Echinococcus spp., Raillietina spp., and model cestode Mesocestoides vogae. Here we focus on curcumin, genistein, quercetin and silymarin complex of flavonolignans. All of them possess a whole spectrum of biological activities on eukaryotic cells which have multi-therapeutic effects in various diseases. In vitro they can induce profound alterations in the tegumental architecture and its functions as well as their activity can significantly modulate or damage worm´s metabolism directly by interaction with enzymes or signaling molecules in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, they seem to differentially regulate the RNA activity in numbers of worm´s genes. This review suggests that examined flavonoids and their derivates are promising molecules for antiparasitic drug research. Due to lack of toxicity, isoflavons could be used directly for therapy, or as adjuvant therapy for diseases caused by medically important cestodes and trematodes.

Summary

Information on the recent herpetological and related parasitological collections are very rarely available for Afghanistan. We examined two species of the family Agamidae, Laudakia nuristanica and Paralaudakia caucasia for the presence of the intestinal helminth fauna. Overall, we examined 13 specimens of these lizards and found three species of helminths (Abbreviata achari, Thelandros masaae, T. taylori) in a single specimen of L. nuristanica and four species (A. achari, T. baylisi, T. taylori, P. kasauli) in three specimens of P. caucasia. Here in, we present the first report on the helminth fauna from L. nuristanica, record a new helminth host for P. caucasia and three new country records for the helminth fauna of Afghanistan.

Summary

Three species of mononchids belonging to the Prionchulus Cobb, 1916 genus, one new and two previously known species collected from natural ecosystem of Khorramabad county, Lorestan province, south west of Iran, are described. Prionchulus girchi sp. nov. is morphologically characterized by its 2.1 – 2.2 mm body length, numerous cuticular pores, slightly offset lip region, prominent labial and cephalic papillae, cephalic papillae larger than labial ones, barrel-shaped and spacious (40 – 43 × 22.5 – 24 μm) buccal cavity, weakly rounded tail tip and weakly expressed tail tip´s hyaline. In this study, P. fagi and P. muscorum were also collected and some additional data of these two species are also given.

Summary

It is important to consider the use of the epigenome as source of complementary data for genome knowledge, which is suitable for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Usually, a laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis is performed by means of 1. Egg detection in the stool or urine by microscopy remains with limited sensitivity; 2. Immunological screening, in which positivity persists after treatment, and 3. Molecular appraisals prevail over the disadvantages of the currently used methods. In this sense, molecular methodologies are being developed based on epigenetic biomarkers, aiming to improve the diagnosis of the disease and clinical treatment as early as possible to prevent the occurrence of serious liver damage.

Summary

The population of Xiphinema americanum species group was detected from the soil surronding the roots of peach (Prunus persica) during a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. From the results of the morphological study, the species was identified as X. diffusum. Morphometrics of X. diffusum generally agree with those of the type species and the topotype specimens. Molecular analysis of 18S rDNA of X. diffusum from Pakistan indicated two nucleotide differences and 99 % similarity with the Chinese (AM086669) and the Australian (AM086685) population of X. diffusum. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA placed the Pakistanis population close to X. diffusum from China and Australia. This species is reported for the first time from Pakistan

Summary

Taenia hydatigena is a tapeworm that affects herbivores in different regions of the world. Cysticercus tenuicollis (larvae of T. hydatigena), is prevalent in ruminants and pigs. In the current study, phylogenetic analysis of the published mt-CO1 gene of C. tenuicollis sheep isolates was analyzed using in-silico method and vertical and horizontal transmission at the global level by using a meta-analysis approach. A total of 82 mt-CO1 nucleotide sequences (339 bp) of C. tenuicollis sheep isolates from the NCBI database (Italy -Sardinia-, Iran, Palestine, Iraq, Finland, India and China) were used to investigate haplotype and genetic relationships. Tajima’s D (-2,2984) value was negative for the mt-CO1 sequences signifying the population expansion and/or purifying selection. The highly negative Fu’s Fs (-60,528) values determined for the sequences reflecting the existence of uncommon haplotypes. The mt-CO1 of C. tenuicollis haplotype network had 47 haplotypes arranged within a star-like configuration with a main haplotype, which encompassed 25.6 % of the total isolates. In the mt-CO1 haplotype network analyzed, there were 80.5 % unique single haplotype and highest ratio was observed in C. tenuicollis from sheep originating from Iran, followed by Sardinia, Palestine and Finland. If the current condition continues, genetic differences in T. hydatigena will be able to rise, and possible new strains and/or genotypes that may influence the host adaptation and life cycle of the parasite may emerge.

Summary

The present study was carried out on 10 frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771), captured near the river Bahlui, Iasi, between April and May, 2019, for the study of digestive helminths and their effect on the digestive tract. Macroscopic examination of the general cavity revealed distension of the small intestine. The sectioning of the intestinal wall revealed a variable number of parasites (1 – 12) with a whitish cylindrical body, anchored in the duodenal mucosa. The morphological study of the parasites confirmed the species as Acantocephalus ranae. The prevalence of the infection was 60 % and the average intensity was 4.83 ± 4.15. Lesions of the small intestine were characterized by catarrhal enteritis, hemorrhagic spots and ulcers on the mucosa, occlusion and obstruction of the intestinal lumen. Histologically, eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the glandular crypts, mucosal and submucosal edema, fibrosis and conjunctival hyperplasia, total mucosal atrophy, were found. The infection with Acanthocephalus ranae in Pelophylax ridibundus caused severe pathological changes, conditioned by the intensity of the infection, aspects revealed for the first time in Romania.