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Abstract

The ripening process of two grape varieties in the vineyard located in the Sandomierz region was examined. In 2015, the ‘Regent’ and the ‘Sibera’ varieties reached physiological ripeness on 30th September and 3rd October, respectively. On both harvest dates, in addition to soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and pH, the macronutrient content was also determined. In the phase of physiological ripeness, the ‘Sibera’ variety showed higher acidity (1.02 g · 100 mL−1) compared with the ‘Regent’ (0.87 g · 100 mL−1). A higher soluble solids content was found in the ‘Regent’ (20.4°Brix), and slightly lower in the ‘Sibera’ (18.1°Brix). The must of the ‘Regent’ had a higher pH (3.5). This variety also had higher macronutrient contents (K, Ca and Mg). Grapes harvested after 3 weeks (late harvest) showed higher values of sugars, pH, K, and P for both varieties. However, their titratable acidity content, and Ca and Mg contents decreased. Microscopic examination showed differences in mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea on grape bunches for both of the varieties left for the late harvest. The mycelial growth promoted faster dehydration of the ‘Sibera’ berries. Spot chemical analyses of ‘Sibera’ berry peel performed using EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) showed the occurrence of elevated contents of potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesium and silicon. Around skin cracks, sugar crystals as well as hard-to-identify microcrystals were formed containing potassium. On the surface of the ‘Regent’ berries, potassium, and traces of phosphorus, silicon, magnesium, sulphur and calcium were found.

Abstract

No-tillage (UT) and tillage (TL) influence melon (Cucumis melo L.) production. However, the mechanism of improving the soil quality under UT in melon production is still unavailable. In this study, we attempted to explore the effects of UT and TL treatments on soil fertility and the microbial abundance and diversity in planting melon under greenhouse condition. Soil properties were determined and the bacterial v4-v5 16S rRNA and the fungal internal transcribed spacer gene were pyrosequenced by extracting greenhouse soil DNA. Results showed that the two treatments had different effects on nutrient uptake in melon plants under facility conditions. Additional nitrogen (N) was absorbed in the leaves and fruit in UT treatment. However, the N content in the UT treatment was kept as similar to that of the TL treatment. The phosphorus (P) contents in melon plant leaves and fruits in the UT treatment were higher than those in the TL treatment. High potassium (K) contents were observed in fruits and melon stem under the UT and TL treatments, respectively. Soil pH, organic matter and the available N influenced the bacterial and fungal distributions. The total N, total P and total K in melon plants were correlated with the bacterial and fungal groups in facility soils. The UT treatment had a substantial effect on the microbial diversity in soils planted with melon. Our study provided insights into the response of soil fertility and microbial structures to UT and TL treatments under greenhouse soils, which may aid in managing greenhouse soil quality.

Abstract

Auricularia cornea, jelly mushroom, is a popular ingredient of traditional Chinese cuisine. This study aimed at evaluating the growth, yield, biological efficiency, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the antioxidant activity, elemental composition, and molecular structure of the wild and domesticated strain Ac24 and the commercially cultivated edible mushroom A. cornea strains Ac1, Ac3 and Ac15. Based on the weight of the fresh fruiting bodies of A. cornea strains, the maximum yield was obtained from commercial strain Ac1 (237.10 g), followed by Ac3 (224.47 g), Ac15 (158 g) and Ac24 (132.37 g), while the biological efficiency range of A. cornea strains was 52.94–94.84%, with significant differences among the A. cornea strains. Our results revealed that Ac24 contained the highest phenolic content (20.10 mg GAE · g−1), while the highest flavonoid content was found in Ac1 (35.13 mg CE · g−1). The maximum mineral contents and the strains were as follows: copper (7.2 mg · kg−1) and zinc (310 mg · kg−1) in Ac1, manganese (788 mg · kg−1) in Ac3 and iron (310 mg · kg−1) in Ac24. DPPH assay found maximum antioxidant activity in Ac24 (IC50 0.233 mg TX · mL−1), FRAP (591 mg TX · g−1) in Ac15, and erythrocyte haemolysis in Ac24. SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses verified the differences among A. cornea strains. The results revealed that wild, domesticated A. cornea strain Ac24 is a promising dietary source of natural antioxidants and is of high nutritional value, compared to commercially cultivated strains.

Abstract

Terrestrial plants are constantly exposed to multiple environmental signals that influence their metabolism. Among these signals, nitrogen (N) nutrition and light affect importantly diverse metabolic and physiological processes. Herewith the effects of N nutrition (8.47, 12.71 and 16.94 mg · L−1 N) and shading percentages (0 and 70%) on plant morphology and chemical composition of the essential oil of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) ‘Inca’ were assessed. Increasing N levels enhanced the number of secondary branches and the flower diameter, while shading reduced height of side branches, number of primary branches and opened flower buds. In leaves, flowers and stems, 15 different compounds were identified. In leaves, low and medium N levels and high light level increased the synthesis of ocimene, limonene and piperitone. As well, medium and high N doses, independently of the light level, stimulated the synthesis of caryophyllene and β-phellandrene in leaves. Nevertheless, increasing N doses and shading level decreased the synthesis of β-myrcene and α-pinene in leaves. In flowers, medium N level and high light intensity increased the synthesis of trans-pinene. Piperitone and verbenone were identified only in flowers of plants with high N doses and lower light intensity. In the stems, caryophyllene, piperitone and β-farnesene were more abundant with medium and high N levels. The interaction of study factors differentially affected both morphological variables and the composition of essential oil among organs studied. Therefore, N nutrition and light intensity are key factors that modify the morphology and composition of the essential oil in T. erecta.

Abstract

Progression of the vegetation period and change of year are associated with variations in general climatic parameters, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, radiation, precipitation, wind speed and others. Only limited knowledge is available about the effects of these parameters on the characteristics of quality of fruits especially those with successive ripening such as goji berry. In our study, fruits of goji berry were characterised based on physico-chemical properties within four different harvest periods, in two consecutive years. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the pomological characteristics were superior at the beginning of the production season, while the phytochemical properties were better at the end. Fruit length, width and weight characteristics were noted to decrease from the first harvest to the last by 21%, 18% and 33%, respectively, while the total anthocyanin, phenol and antioxidant activity properties increased by 264%, 48% and 105%, respectively. There was a decrease in fruit weight, fruit length and fruit width up to 15.9%, 18.3% and 6%, respectively and were directly associated with yield due to sink competition among fruits. Providing high ripening index that ensures more acceptable fruits, with high soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) seems to be a very important breeding objective to meet consumer demands thanks to superior organoleptic quality. According to correlations, the synthesis of phenolic compounds increased in parallel with SSC rise and TA, which improved pomological properties too. It is thought that the obtained results may indicate the cultural processes and evaluation methods to be used for the harvested fruits.

Abstract

Iodine (I) has a beneficial effect on plant growth, development and antioxidant activity. The study aimed to compare iodine uptake after the application of iodobenzoates (2-iodobenzoic acid (2-IBeA), 4-iodobenzoic acid (4-IBeA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (2,3,5-triIBeA)) as well as potassium iodide (KI) to tomato seedlings. One of the main tasks was to evaluate how the tested compounds applied in different concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 50 μM) affect the growth and antioxidative potential of tomato seedlings. Negative effect on growth and development of tomato seedlings was noted for 4-IBeA applied in 10–50 μM I concentrations. The 2,3,5-triIBeA application affected shoot deformation. All tested iodine compounds increased iodine level in leaves and roots of tomato seedlings. Iodine after KI application was accumulated mainly in leaves, while after iodobenzoates treatment in roots of tomato seedlings, which is probably related to their weaker transport to the upper parts of the plant. Tested compounds variously modified the content of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in tomato leaves depending on applied concentration. KI treatment improved ascorbate peroxidase activity, but all iodobenzoates decreased APX and catalase activity in leaves. 4-IBeA (5 μM I) and 2,3,5-triIBeA (25 and 50 μM I) increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in leaves. It can be concluded that mechanisms responsible for plant oxidative metabolism were variously affected by the iodine compounds and its concentration in the nutrient solution.

Abstract

A good peach fruit should have properties of high quality, as these properties directly affect the shelf life. This study aims to determine the effects of different salicylic acid (SA) treatments in the pre-harvest period on the ‘Cresthaven’ peach cultivar on the fruit quality at harvest and after storage at 2°C (8 days) plus shelf life at 20°C (2 days). Fruits with SA treatments have better characteristics such as fruit weight, fruit flesh firmness, total antioxidant content, total phenol content and titratable acidity level at harvest and after storage plus shelf life. With treatments, no changes were observed in the total soluble solids both at harvest and after storage plus shelf life. SA treatments decreased loss of fruit flesh firmness and loss of acidity after shelf life, compared with the control. In fruits with 2 mM SA acid treatment, the reduction in fruit firmness and acidity loss were the least, and as a result of the study it was determined as the most effective pre-harvest SA concentration that could be used in the ‘Cresthaven’ peach variety.

Abstract

Cornelian cherry fruits are quite rich in bioactive compounds. Natural colour, rich flavonoids and anthocyanins and high antioxidant activity have made the fruits a natural drug. In the present study, antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and total phenolics of naturally growing 18 cornelian cherry genotypes with different phenotypic characteristics were determined. Size and shape parameters of the genotypes were also determined with the image-processing method; sphericity, elongation and shape index were calculated and shapes of two-dimensional fruit images were compared with elliptic Fourier analysis. Antioxidant activity, total flavonoid contents and total phenolic amounts of the genotypes were varied between 55.062 and 152.420 mmol TE · kg−1, 286.40 and 2,882.80 mg QE · kg−1, and 2,644.80 and 12,959.00 mg GAE · kg−1, respectively. Multivariate variance analysis conducted based on physical characteristics revealed that six genotypes were different from the others. Shape analysis with Elliptic Fourier method revealed that the majority of present cornelian cherry genotypes had an oval appearance and a small portion of them had a drop-like appearance. According to discriminant analysis and Hotelling's pair-wise comparison tests, there were five different shape groups for present genotypes. A single genotype was placed into one of these groups, thus it was determined that this genotype was totally different in shape from the others.

Abstract

This research was carried out to examine the effects of different doses of bacterial formulation comprised of a mixture of Bacillus megaterium TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans RK-92 and Kluyvera cryocrescens TV-113C strains on the plant development and bract quality of poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch), which are one of the most important potted plants grown for their fleshy bracts of the horticultural sector. The study was carried out in a climate-controlled research greenhouse from 8 August 2018 to 15 January 2019 in Erzurum (Turkey). Rooted cuttings of poinsettia [E. pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch cv. Christmas Feelings (CvF)] were used as plant materials in the study. Each of the solutions containing bacterial suspensions 52.5 (T1), 105 (T2), 210 (T3), 420 (T4) and 840 (T5) mL · L−1 of water was diluted 5 times with water and 200 mL · pot−1 was applied to the plant rhizosphere. This study revealed that positive changes incurred in plant height, main flower stem length, plant crown width, bract diameter, green leaf and bract leaf area, leaf total nitrogen content and nitrate reductase enzyme activity parameters in poinsettia plants with increasing doses of the bacterial formulation. This effect has reached the maximum level in the number of bracts, main flower stem length, bract diameter, nitrate reductase enzyme activity, plant fresh weight and maximal root length parameters with the T5 application which has the highest bacterial formulation concentration. The most efficient application of glutamine synthetase enzyme activity was determined as T4.

Abstract

Two okra cultivars (Chinese green and Chinese red) were subjected to salt stress for 12 weeks. Salt stress treatments T1 (20.8 mM), T2 (103.3 mM), T3 (180.0 mM) and T4 (257.0 mM) were applied with equal proportions of NaCl and CaCl2 in Hoagland nutrient solution. Salt stress significantly affects photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, water potential, plant height, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of both okra cultivars in every salt stress treatment. At T2, T3 and T4, Chinese red plants maintained their physiological and growth traits up to Weeks 9, 6 and 3, respectively; beyond these salt-stress durations, growth reductions were found. Similarly, Chinese green plants maintained their growth up to Weeks 9, 5 and 3, respectively, at T2, T3 and T4 treatments. In comparison, Chinese red showed more tolerance than Chinese green. According to the results, the third and ninth weeks are the tolerance threshold limits for both cultivars to sustain their physiological traits and growth under T4 and T2 salinity treatments. Similarly, Chinese red has the threshold limit to bear T3 treatment up to the eighth week and Chinese green, up to the fifth week. Thus, this study provides a new method to determine the threshold value of crops with respect to duration under salt stress. This finding would be useful in the field of water saving and utilisation of saline water resources.