The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in selected production and functional traits of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows after switching from a conventional (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS). The study consisted of 3398 Polish Holstein- Friesian dairy cows, from 16 herds in which CMS was changed to AMS. Cows were in their 1st (L1) or 2nd lactation (L2). The data consisted of milk yield [MY, kg], fat content [FC, %], protein content [PC, %], dry matter [DM, %], lactose content [LC, %], urea content [MU, mg/l], somatic cell count [SCC, thous./ml] and score [SCS, log]. The milking system had a significant impact on milk yield, fat, lactose, dry matter and urea contents. Regardless of lactation number, milk derived from CMS was characterised by higher values for FC, PC, DM SCC and SCS, while milk from AMS had higher MY, LC and MU. Multifactor analysis of variance also confirmed significant effect of herd, season, herd × milking system interaction on SCS in milk of cows in L1. In the studied herds change from CMS to AMS was evaluated separately for cows in L1 and L2. The transitioning from CMS to AMS resulted in the decrease of fat content in 6 L1 and 7 L2 herds, dry matter in 8 L1 and 5 L2 herds. SCS in milk also decreased in 4 L1 and 5 L2 herds. The change caused the increase of MY in 11 L1 and 9 L2 herds, lactose content in 6 L1 and 4 L2 herds and urea content in 9 L1 and 10 L2 herds. AMS may positively affect milk yield and health status, however, the change of milking system should be also accompanied by the change in herd management.
Changes in the odor of meat during its storage are one of the basic indicators affecting its assessment and possible disqualification. The aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of essential oils may affect the composition and concentration of volatile compounds included in the aroma of stored turkey meat. We investigated the effect of adding essential oil (EO) of caraway (0.02% v/w), rosemary (0.02% v/w) and a mixture of the two (0.01% each) on the composition of volatile compound fractions formed during 10-day storage of vacuum-packed minced turkey meat. The EOs used were also evaluated for their influence on microbial contamination (total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count), sensory quality (odor and taste) and the level of fat oxidation (acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value) and pH in chill-stored samples. In terms of sensory indicators, the greatest beneficial effect of adding oils was noted in the odor of raw meat. Use of the HS-SPME/GC-MS (headspace-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) method showed that the addition of oils significantly reduced the amounts of benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-octenal and ethyl 2-methyloctanoate compared with the control sample. In addition, in the presence of essential oils of rosemary and caraway, decreases were noted in benzaldehyde and 9-octadecenal, respectively. These changes may potentially affect the reception of the odor. There was a beneficial effect of the oils in reducing the levels of fat oxidation indicators, including peroxide. However, the oils at applied concentrations had no significant effect on the total viable count and LAB count.
The starch content of triticale and oat grains provides much of their readily available energy. Synchronizing energy and nitrogen in the rumen is important in optimizing profitability; for this reason, ammonia processing of these grains was evaluated for its potential to modify ruminal fermentation and to improve milk production performance. A mixture of ground triticale and oats (CONG, in a 60:40 ratio 40 by DM) was treated with urea (5 kg/1000 kg) and urease additive (20 kg/1000 kg) containing 200 g/kg of moisture, for 2 wk (UREG). The urea treatment enhanced the pH and CP content of grains by 34% and 52%, respectively. In a batch culture study, CONG or UREG as the only substrate was incubated in a buffered ruminal fluid. Compared to CONG, UREG increased pH, total VFA concentration, total gas, and disappearance of DM, while reducing CH4 production, whereas NH3 concentration increased and entodiniomorph counts tended to increase. In the in vivo study, cows were randomly allocated to two dietary groups (n = 24) and were offered TMR based on maize and grass silage, containing either 155 g/kg of CONG and 80 g/kg of soybean meal (CONT) or 155 g/kg of UREG and 59 g/kg of soybean meal (URET) for 31 d. Ruminal fluid was collected (n = 10) using rumenocentesis. The relative abundances of Streptococcus bovis decreased, but Megasphaera elsdenii, methanogens, and ammonia-producing bacteria increased by URET. Entodiniomorph and holotrich counts were decreased by URET. Feeding with URET increased ruminal pH and concentrations of total VFA, acetate, branched-chain VFA, and NH3. Feeding with URET also increased milk yield. These results demonstrate that replacing untreated triticale and oat grains with urea-treated grains can beneficially modulate ruminal microbiota and fermentation, consequently improving production performance and profitability.
The success of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer depends on the efficiency of nuclear reprogramming, with the cycle stage of the donor cell playing a crucial role. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate three different approaches for cell cycle synchronization: (i) serum starvation (SS) for 1 to 4 days, (ii) contact inhibition (CI) for 1 to 3 days, and (iii) using cell cycle regulatory inhibitors (dimethyl sulfoxide, cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 6-dimethylaminopurine) for 1 and 2 days, in terms of their effects on synchronization in G0/G1 phases and viability of collared peccary skin fibroblasts. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SS for 4 days (79.0% ± 1.6) and CI for 3 days (78.0% ± 1.4) increased the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 compared to growing cells GC, (68.1% ± 8.6). However, SS for 3 and 4 days reduced the viability evaluated by differential staining (81.4% ± 0.03 and 81.6% ± 0.06) compared to growing cells (GC, 95.9% ± 0.06). CI did not affect the viability at any of the analyzed time intervals. No cell cycle inhibitors promoted synchronization in G0/G1. These results indicate that CI for 3 days was the most efficient method for cell cycle synchronization in peccary fibroblasts.
The present study was performed to determine the effect of melatonin on cadmium accumulation and haematological parameters changes in females of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio B.). The fish were exposed to a sublethal concentration of cadmium (0.4 and 4.0 mg/L) without or with melatonin implant (containing 18 mg melatonin hormone) for 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 weeks. After the 7th week, Cd-exposed fish were divided into two groups. The first group of fish were subjected to depuration in clear water, while the second group remained exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium. After the 10th and 13th weeks of exposure the kidney, spleen, heart and blood were taken in order to determine the cadmium concentration and to analyse haematological parameters. The results of this study showed an increase in the concentration of cadmium in the tissues and blood in fish exposed to the highest dose (4.0 mg/L) of cadmium in water with a dependence on the exposure duration. Additionally, it was shown that melatonin administration reduced the cadmium concentration in the tissues and blood, and melatonin had a protective effect against cadmium accumulation. Moreover, the results showed a significant increase in blood parameters (RBC, Ht and Hb) in fish treated with the highest dose of cadmium. However, implantation of melatonin in cadmium-treated fish resulted in marked improvements in haematological parameters. Thus, melatonin can be a good implementation to alleviate, at least partially, the toxicity of cadmium.
At the plants’ exposal to abiotic stress, organic acids, including citric acid, are exuded through their roots. Previous studies have suggested that the exogenous application of citric acid increases antioxidant activity within the plant. Thus, we postulated that organic acids released into the surroundings during times of environmental stress may function as signaling molecules to increase antioxidant enzyme activity. To gain further insight into this phenomenon, we identified individual organic acids exuded from the roots of leafy vegetables under drought stress. We then analyzed enzyme activity and the root/shoot lengths of seedlings after treatment with the types of organic acids found to be exuded from the studied leafy vegetables, including acetic, citric, lactic, and tartaric acids. There was a significant increase in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity in Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) after exogenous citric acid application. Root lengths of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and Napa cabbage seedlings were significantly longer in citric and lactic acids pretreated seedlings compared to those of the control. The above results support the conclusion that exogenous application of citric acid alleviates drought stress. However, there is insufficient evidence to prove that organic acids act as signaling molecules to prime neighboring plants for upcoming stress.
The development of effective approaches for not only the in vitro maturation (IVM) of heifer/cow oocytes and their extracorporeal fertilization (IVF) but also the non-surgical collection and transfer of bovine embryos has given rise to optimizing comprehensive in vitro embryo production (IVP) technology and improving other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), such as cattle cloning by embryo bisection, embryonic cell nuclear transfer (ECNT) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The primary goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the progress and achievements in the strategies utilized for embryonic cell cloning and somatic cell cloning in cattle. Moreover, the current article is focused on recognizing and identifying the suitability and reliability of bovine cloning techniques for nutritional biotechnology, agri-food and biopharmaceutical industry, biomedical and transgenic research and for the genetic rescue of endangered or extinct breeds and species of domesticated or wild-living artiodactyl mammals (even-toed ungulates) originating from the family Bovidae.
The assignment of an individual to the true population of origin is one of the most important applications of genomic data for practical use in animal breeding. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical method and then, to identify the minimum number of informative SNP markers from high-throughput genotyping data that would be able to trace the true breed of unknown samples in indigenous sheep breeds. The total numbers of 217 animals were genotyped using Illumina OvineSNP50K BeadChip in Zel, Lori-Bakhtiari, Afshari, Moqani, Qezel and a wild-type Iranian sheep breed. After SNP quality check, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine how the animals allocated to the groups using all genotyped markers. The results revealed that the first principal component (PC1) separated out the two domestic and wild sheep breeds, and all domestic breeds were separated from each other for PC2. The genetic distance between different breeds was calculated using FST and Reynold methods and the results showed that the breeds were well differentiated. A statistical method was developed using the stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) and the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to reduce the number of SNPs for discriminating 6 different Iranian sheep populations and K-fold cross-validation technique was employed to evaluate the potential of a selected subset of SNPs in assignment success rate. The procedure selected reduced pools of markers into 201 SNPs that were able to exactly discriminate all sheep populations with 100% accuracy. Moreover, a discriminate analysis of principal components (DAPC) developed using 201 linearly independent SNPs revealed that these markers were able to assign all individuals into true breed. Finally, these 201 identified SNPs were successfully used in an independent out-group breed consisting 96 samples of Baluchi sheep breed and the results indicated that these markers are able to correctly allocate all unknown samples to true population of origin. In general, the results of this study indicated that the combined use of the SDA and LDA techniques represents an efficient strategy for selecting a reduced pool of highly discriminant markers.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hempseed cake on production traits, metabolic profile and antioxidant status of lambs. The research was conducted on 20 Merinolandschaf lambs of similar live body weight (24.03 kg ± 2.22 and 24.06 ± 1.84 kg in control and experimental group, respectively). The experiment started after the weaning of lambs at their average age of 70 days. Lambs were divided by gender (50% male: 50% female) and then allocated in two groups. The research lasted for 30 days during the fattening period. Lambs in the control group were fed with feed mixtures, where main protein source was soybean meal and extruded soybean (SB), while lambs in the experimental group were fed feed mixtures in which soybean was replaced by hempseed cake (HSC) at 12% of dry matter. Higher values of daily weight gain (P<0.05) compared to SB lambs were observed from the 15th to 30th day. HSC lambs showed no significant differences in hematology and biochemical blood parameters, except for lower (P<0.001) urea concentrations on days 15th and 30th, as well as higher (P<0.05) Mg concentrations in serum on the 30th day. Hempseed cake in lambs′ diets did not influence (P>0.05) activity of the enzymes, like AST, ALT, ALP, GGT and CK, as well as SOD and GPx enzymes, thus not affecting the antioxidant status of lambs′ blood. Concentrations of DHA and n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) in HSC group than in SB group. The present study confirmed that the inclusion of HSC as soybean replacement up to 12% in the lambs’ diet is justified when considering production traits, metabolic profile and antioxidant status of Merinolandschaf lambs.
The discovery of antibiotics is considered one of the most crucial breakthroughs in medicine and veterinary science in the 20th century. From the very beginning, this type of drug was used as a ‘miraculous cure’ for every type of infection. In addition to their therapeutic uses, antibiotics were also used for disease prevention and growth promotion in livestock. Though this application was banned in the European Union in 2006, antibiotics are still used in this way in countries all over the world. The unlimited and unregulated use of antibiotics has increased the speed of antibiotic resistance’s spread in different types of organisms. This phenomenon requires searching for new strategies to deal with hard-to-treat infections. The antimicrobial activity of some plant derivatives and animal products has been known since ancient times. At the beginning of this century, even more substances, such as antimicrobial peptides, were considered very promising candidates for becoming new alternatives to commonly used antimicrobials. However, many preclinical and clinical trials ended without positive results. A variety of strategies to fight microbes exist, but we are a long way from approving them as therapies. This review begins with the discovery of antibiotics, covers the modes of action of select antimicrobials, and ends with a literature review of the newest potential alternative approaches to overcoming the drug resistance phenomenon.