The aim of the work was to isolate the associate of Fe+3 with NADPH containing lipoprotein from Saanen and local goat milk, to determine O2−-producing reaction to show the immune activity of milk. Results showed that the content of the associate in Saanen milk was lower by 1.7 times compared with the local, which means that its prooxidant status is higher.
In order to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on growth and laying performances of quail in soudano-guinean zone of Cameroon, a study has been conducted in Ngaoundéré from May to September 2018. For this purpose, a total of 168 seven weeks old quails were divided into 12 comparable batches of 10 females and 4 males. Each of the four experimental diets (T0, T1, T2 and T3), formulated on the basis of the level (0, 1, 2, and 3% respectively) of diet supplementation with MOLM was randomly assigned to 03 batches in a completely randomized. Data were collected during the 16 weeks of the study on feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Weekly, after total laid eggs evaluation, 40 eggs per treatment was randomly chosen, weighed and measured. Main findings revealed that FI was not significantly affected by the diet supplementation with MOLM. Significantly higher BW and BW gain was recorded in T1 treatment compared to others treatments while they remains similar between them. The relatively heavier eggs were noted in T2 treatment while the highest (88.57 ± 2.85%) weekly laying rate was recorded with 1% supplementation. It has then been concluded that MOLM could be used as diet supplement during laying phase up to 3% for egg production and 1% of substitution seem to be the most appropriate to increase eggs laying rate while 2% is suitable to obtain heavy eggs in the soudano-guinean agro ecological zone of Cameroon.
This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of Dennettia tripetala on some biochemical parameters of rats. Twenty-five rats were used and were divided in to five groups of 5 rats. Group 1 served as control while group 2-5 were fed dietary inclusion of Dennettia tripetala fruits for 28 days. After the feeding trials, the rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for biochemical analyses. The serum concentration triglyceride and glucose were significantly lowered (p<0.05) while total protein, catalase and high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher (p<0.05) in rats fed with the formulated diet. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the serum level of superoxide dismutase, albumin, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of rats fed with the formulated diet. In conclusion, the study has shown that dietary inclusion of Dennettia tripetala fruits has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. Therefore, it may help in the prevention of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer.
The vegetation indices (VIs) derived from the hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation are presented in this study for monitoring live green vegetation in the northern ecosystems of Iceland, along the fjords of Eyjafjörđur and the Skagafjörđur. The comparative analysis of the following VIs was performed: the NDVI, RVI, NRVI, TVI, CTVI, TTVI and SAVI. The methodology is based on the raster calculator band in a QGIS. The dataset includes a Landsat TM scene of 2013, UTM Zone 53, WGS84 captured from the GloVis. The computed bands include the NIR and R spectral bands and their combinations according to the algorithms of each of the seven VIs. The hyperspectral reflectance and crop canopy computations were applied to generate various scales of VIs and demonstrated following data range: NDVI: -0.91 to 0.65, RVI: 0.22 to 19.65, NRVI: 0.63 to 0.90, TVI: 0 to 1.12, CTVI: -0.64 to 1.07, TTVI: 0.70 to 1.18 and SAVI: -1.36 to 0.99 (roughly to 1.00). Of these, the RVI, NRVI, TVI and TTVI are adjusted to the positive values while the NDVI, CTVI and SAVI do include the negative diapason in the dataset due to the computing algorithm. The algorithms of the seven VIs are described and visualized in form of maps based on the multispectral remote sensing Landsat TM imagery identifying vegetated areas, their health condition and distribution of green areas against the bare soils, rocks, ocean water, lakes and ice-covered glaciers. The paper contributes both to the technical presentation of the QGIS functionality for the Landsat TM data processing by a raster calculator, and to the regional geographic studies of Iceland and Arctic ecosystems.
The harmful effects that accompany the use of orthodox antioxidant medicine have necessitated the hunt for inherent antioxidants from plants extracts. In the present study, the in vivo antioxidant and hepato-protective activities of Vitex doniana against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in albino rats were investigated. The hepato-protective activities of the methanol extract of Vitex doniana stem bark were compared with Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug. Twenty-five (25) male albino adult rats were grouped into five (5) each. Group 1 and 2 was used as the normal and negative control respectively. Group 3-5 were treated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg methanol extract of Vitex doniana stem bark and 100 mg/kg Silymarin respectively. Results indicated that elevated levels of serum ALT, AST and ALB, and reduced serum SOD, GST and CAT in CCl4-hepatotoxic rats was an evidence of impairment in liver function. Administration of methanol extract of Vitex doniana stem bark (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and standard control drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg) have no significant (P>0.05) effect on CCl4- induced elevations of the ALT and AST levels while the reduction in albumin concentration, total proteins, SOD, GST and CAT due to CCl4 was reversed. In conclusion, Vitex doniana exhibited significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in CCL4 induced liver damage in rat, and thus could be used and incorporated in the development of new and effective antioxidant drugs.
Our study was focused on rapid identification of selected groups of microorganisms from non-smoked cheese made from cow’s milk. The following groups of microorganisms were detected: lactic acid bacteria, total microbial counts, coliforms, yeast and filamentous microscopic fungi. The microbial groups were analyzed depending on sampling month from January to December. The microbial qualtity of samples were evaluated with classical microbiological method and than identified with mass spectrometry. The highest total microbial count was found in July - 3.42 log CFU/g. The presence of coliform bacteria was detected in three samples in the beginning of January and the counts increase in summer months. Microscopic filamentous fungi and yeast were present in all samples during the year with the highest counts during the summer months were observed. Altogether, 25 microbial genera were identified including families Candida, Cryptococcus, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Torulaspora, Yarrowia, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Hafnia, Citrobacter, Bacillus, and Sphingomonas with mass spectrometry method. The lactic acid bacteria are one of the most important group of microorganisms in milk and milk products for production of typical sensory characteristics.
Insecticides are used widely to control a variety of pests and often residues of these insecticides are left in soil which may have impact on the phosphate solubilization potentials of rhizosphere fungi. Rhizosphere soils were collected from carefully uprooted cowpea seedlings with hand trowel on 50, 70 and 90th days of germination containing the lambda-cyhalothrin and dimethoate insecticides. Fungi associated with the above samples were identified by standard microbiological techniques. Screening for phosphate solubilization potential of the isolates was done by spot inoculation on Pikovskaya agar by measuring the clear zones around the colonies supplemented with tricalcium phosphates [Ca3(PO4)2]. The phosphatase produced by the fungal species was optimized using parameters such as incubation time, pH, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source in submerged fermentation. The isolated rhizosphere fungi were identified as Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma viride, Arthroderma fulvum and Fusarium oxysporum. Among the isolates, Trichoderma viride showed the best ability to solubilize phosphate with solubilization index of 2.82 with dimethoate of 12.5ml/L of water. The optimization study for the enzyme production showed that the best incubation time for phosphatase production was 72 hours by Trichoderma viride. It was observed that the optimum pH for production of phosphatase by Trichoderma viride was 6.5. This study suggests that all the isolated fungi especially Trichoderma viride can adapt to these insecticidal treatments, which make them useful as biofertilizers to increase uptake of phosphorous in plants.
Rickettsia species are important emerging pathogens causing rickettsial diseases, which are important cause death worldwide. The number of recombinant proteins used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has increased dramatically, which is important in determination of protein function, structure and antigensity. Although E. coli is widely used expression system, the codon bias can hamper protein expression due to the presence of rare codons in gene sequence coding protein of interest. Using bioinformatics tools, rare codon analysis of rickettsial genes was performed and compared to not expressed proteins in both R. prowazekii and R. rickettsii. A negative correlation between frequencies of rare codons in Rickettsia and success of rickettsial protein expression was observed. This study suggested a useful tool to improve rickettsial recombinant protein expression in E. coli.
Today the aromatic and medicinal plants have gained more recognition as dietary supplements because they are characterized as natural, safe, eco-friendly, and possess many health-promoting properties, making their ongoing usage part of an emerging field at the cutting edge of science. Rosehip (Rosa canina), a medicinal plant, is widely known as a valuable source of various nutrients and biologically active substances, mostly polyphenols and vitamin C. The chemical composition differs depending on the climate, growing region, cultivation practice, maturity, soil type, harvesting and storage conditions. Over the years, significant variations in vitamins (106-967 mg/100 g), minerals (Fe 59.40-72.90 ppm; Zn 3.69-4.51 ppm; Ca 133.30-146.70 ppm), essential fatty acids (33.8% - 49.7% α-linolenic), phenols (9982 GAE - mg/100 g), antioxidants (lutein, zeaxanthin) among other bioactive components and nutrients have been reported by various researchers. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that rosehip used at an appropriate dose in broilers and laying hens dietary feed, could have some beneficial effects.