Introduction: Introduction: Both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) are important dementia syndromes that overlap in their clinical features and clinical course, neuropathological abnormalities, and also therapeutic approach. Nevertheless it is still unclear whether DLB and PDD are two different disorders that require differentiation or are one clinical entity within a spectrum of Lewy body disease. Currently these disorders are mainly distinguished on the basis of the relative timing of the onset of symptoms of dementia and parkinsonism. The present paper presents current concepts on the pathogenesis of both disorders and their possible overlap.
Material and methods: Online databases in the field of DLB and PDD were searched for to find potentially eligible articles. Only most recent articles published after the year 2000 were chosen.
Results: The clinical features of DLB and PDD are similar and include dementia with hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations, as well as parkinsonian signs. Also cognitive deficits are similar in PDD and in DLB, with predominance of executive dysfunction, visual-spatial deficits and memory impairment. Neuropathological changes in both disorders involve the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites within brainstem, limbic and neocortex, as well as loss of midbrain dopamine cells, and loss of cholinergic neurons in the nuclei of ventral forebrain.
Conclusions: Similarities in clinical manifestation, neuropsychological deficits and neuropathological abnormalities may suggest that both DLB and PDD are two different phenotypes of the same disorder. This review article presents current knowledge on similarities and differences between these two clinical entities and raises the question whether they require differentiation or not.
Objective: The purpose of the study is to analyze and define the content, specifics, and procedures of social and psychological work with citizens who have expressed a desire to become mentors for orphans.
Introduction: In Ukraine, there are more than 750 foundations of institutional care and upbringing of children, in which approximately 106,000 children live. Only 8% among them have the status of orphans and children deprived of parental care; the other 92% have parents, but due to some difficult life circumstances of parents or presence of special needs or disability in children, they cannot live or be brought up in the family. It means that 92% of children without the status of orphans or children deprived of parental care cannot be adopted or placed for living and upbringing to other forms of family placement (guardianship/care, foster family, family-type orphanage). Along with this, out of 8% of orphan children and children deprived of parental care, there are no opportunities to be accommodated in any family forms of upbringing the following children: teenagers and youngsters, brothers and sisters from families with many children, and children with disabilities. In such children, close emotional relationships with meaningful, constant adults, which is a vital necessity for their psycho-emotional development and well-being, have been lost or were not formed at all. Accordingly, the introduction of mentoring for orphans and children deprived of parental care who live in relevant institutions is motivated by the necessity to satisfy the need of every child in emotional support, assistance and protection by a significant, authoritative person, and friend.
Methods: The study uses an experience which was gained during the realization of the project as the author-developer of the methodology of socio-psychological work with citizens and children concerning preparations for mentoring and training for both coordinators and mentors of the Mentoring Program in cooperation with specialists of the “One Hope” non-governmental organization; in the role of educator for the preparation of coordinators for the Mentoring Program implementation, as well as in the role of expert during the implementation of Mentoring Program by the community organization “One Hope” during the 2009-2016 period . Also, authors participated in developing of the mentors preparing program over orphans and children deprived of parental care in order to receive approval at the state level.
Results: Mentoring for orphans and children deprived of parental care residing in institutions has been implemented in Ukraine since 2009 by the “One Hope” (“Odna Nadia”) public organization in cooperation with the Kyiv City Children’s Service and the Kyiv City Center of Social Services for Families, Children and Young People. The project “One Hope” was launched in the city of Kyiv and the Kyiv region during 2009-2016. Since 2016, mentoring as an individual form of support and assistance for a child living in a residential institution has been introduced in Ukraine at the state level.
Conclusions: If an orphan child or a child deprived of parental care is unable to live and being brought up in a family, then the mentor’s role in the life of this child is of paramount importance. This is due to the fact that such a form of individual support through mentoring will facilitate the preparation of every orphan child for independent living in the future.
Paranoid schizophrenia is a chronic, psychotic disorder which can be treated with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic drugs. There are risperidone (Risperdal Consta®), olanzapine (Zypadhera®), paliperidone (Xepilon®) and aripiprazole (Abilify Maintena®) currently available.
The aim of this study was to present a case history of the patient to whom monthly injections of aripiprazole effectively prevented both relapses of psychotic symptoms and hospitalizations.
Case report: A 55-year-old male patient with a 13-year history of paranoid schizophrenia has been effectively treated with aripiprazole (LAI) (400mg, every 4 weeks). During the last 8 years of treatment his mental state has been stabilized, without any acute psychotic symptoms and without any anxiety, or violent behaviours. Moreover, there have been no psychotic symptoms, or suicidal thoughts, or tendencies recordered. Therefore, no hospitalization has been required. However, despite the treatment, negative symptoms such as blunted affect, cognitive dysfunction and social withdrawal have been sustained.
Discussion: The available articles on aripiprazole (LAI) treatment indicate that it was effective in reducing the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as reducing the frequency and duration of hospitalization. However, the case report of a patient who has not had relapses of psychotic symptoms and suicidal thoughts and has not been hospitalized during 8 years of treatment with aripiprazole (LAI) has not yet been reported.
Conclusions: Regular, long-term injections of aripiprazole (LAI) are very effective at preventing positive symptoms of schizophrenia development and preventing both suicidal thoughts and hospitalizations. Therefore, treatment with this drug in everyday practice should be increased.
Introduction: In recent years, numerous studies have focused on the analysis of the primary mechanisms and forms of therapy in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The analysis of such topics among similarly diagnosed young adults is only beginning to gain popularity. The present article attempts to answer the question of whether the level of individual temperament traits will predict an increase in the severity of ADHD symptoms in young adults.
Materials and methods: The questionnaire study involved 111 young adults aged from 18 to 28 (M= 23; SD= 2.12; 70 women and 41 men). Fifty-one people were included in the clinical group, and sixty were qualified for the control one. The participants of the study completed a health questionnaire and a structured diagnostic interview on ADHD symptoms in adults (DIVA 2.0) and a questionnaire for the diagnosis of basic, biologically determined dimensions of human personality (FCZ-KT (R)).
Results: The results indicate a significant role of four temperament traits that may be considered as specific risk factors for the aggravation of ADHD symptoms. These include briskness, rhythm, endurance and activity.
Conclusions: In Strelau’s Regulatory Theory of Temperament, the variability of temperament traits (in the Polish population) is attributed in 44% to genetic factors. The remaining 56% indicate non-genetic factors. The obtained results may indicate which factors are important in therapeutic work both in the group of young adults with ADHD symptoms, and may also constitute a source of information for parents or teachers regarding younger children with these symptoms.
The use of corticosteroids might be associated with the sequelae of psychiatric comorbidity – manic and depressive symptoms, psychosis, and cognitive impairment.
We report a case of the 35 years old man who presented seven months period of irritability, occasional low mood, and sleep disturbances without the concurrent hallucinations or delusions. The patient had a history of nephrotic syndrome and for this reason, required prednisolone. The corticosteroid induced irritability that has appeared three months after the treatment has started. The psychiatric examination showed neither the psychomotor retardation, manic or depressed mood, nor hallucinations and delusions. However, the level of irritability was undoubtedly increased.
Corticosteroids are drugs commonly used in many systemic diseases. During a psychiatric examination, a careful evaluation is necessary to distinguish the side effects of corticosteroids from the primary psychiatric disorders.
Objective. Mutations of the KCNJ11 gene are the most common cause of the permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Majority of people with KNCJ11-PNDM have a de-novo mutation. We aimed to compare diabetes phenotype in two children and their mothers with PNDM carrying the same sulfonylurea-sensitive KCNJ11 variants.
Methods. We have compared glibenclamide (sulfonylurea) dose, C-peptide, and HbA1c serum levels in two children and their mothers with PNDM up to 5.5-year follow-up. All of them were carrying a heterozygous activating KCNJ11 pathogenic variant (p.R201H in Family 1 or p.H46Y in Family 2). The mothers were initially treated with insulin and successfully switched to sulfonylurea at the age of 24 and 11 years, respectively. Both children were treated with sulfonylurea since the diagnosis of PNDM.
Results. Glibenclamide dose was similar in both children (0.02–0.03 mg/kg/day), but lower compared to their mothers (0.1–0.4 mg/kg/day) (p<0.002). Fasting serum C-peptide levels were also lower in children (70–210 pmol/l) than in their mothers (263–720 pmol/l) (p<0.002), but no significant differences were observed in postprandial C-peptide levels. HbA1c was lower only in the son of SVK4 (Family 2) compared to his mother, as she had poor adherence to the sulfonylurea therapy during the first years after the sulfonylurea switch.
Conclusions. Evaluation of the treatment in people with sulfonylurea-sensitive KNCJ11-PNDM should respect the age of patients together with the type of mutation and duration of diabetes at therapy start and may differ within one family.
Objectives. Bisphenol A (BPA), as an indispensable plastic additive, has also been proven as an endocrine disruptor associated with adverse health effects including impaired ovarian function and cancer. Due to the restrictions of its usage, several analogs have been employed to replace BPA. Although many studies revealed a harmfulness in the biological effects of BPA analogs, their specific targets remain largely unknown. Nuclear receptors (NRs) may be one of the most important targets of bisphenols. Therefore, in this study, our attention was directed to explore the effect of BPA and its analogs, AF and S, on the mRNA expression of selected NRs involved in the steroidogenic and carcinogenic pathways in the human granulosa cell line COV434. The NRs investigated included: thyroid hormone receptor α (THRA), peroxisome proliferator activating receptor β/δ (PPARD), retinoid X receptor α (RXRA), chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUPTFII), nuclear receptor-related protein 1 (NURR1), and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1).
Methods. COV434 cells were treated with the bisphenols at the concentrations of 10−9 M, 10−7 M, and 10−5 M, and after 24 and 48 h, cell viability was monitored by the MTS assay and gene expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR.
Results. Bisphenol treatment did not alter the COV434 cell viability. After 24 h, the expression of neither of the NRs was changed. Likewise, after 48 h, the expression of the selected genes was not altered. However, both BPAF and BPS increased, at the highest concentration (10−5 M) used, the mRNA levels of both PPARD and NURR1 NRs after 48 h of the treatment. In the BPA-treated groups, no significant upregulation was observed.
Conclusions. In the present study, the effect of bisphenols on COUP-TFII, Nurr1, and LRH-1 NRs was investigated for the first time. Although generally we did not observe that BPs provoked any alterations in the expression of the selected NRs in COV434 cells, at specific concentrations and time points they might alter mRNA expression of certain NRs (NURR1, PPARD).
Objective. The aim of this investigation was to study the expression of genes encoding cAMP-activated protein kinase catalytic and regulatory A subunits (PRKACA and PRKAR1A) and related proteins such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors A and G (PKIA and PKIG), catalytic subunit A of protein phosphatase 3 (PPP3CA), A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12), and praja ring finger ubiquitin ligase 2 (PJA2) in U87 glioma cells in response to glucose deprivation in both control U87 glioma cells and cells with ERN1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) knockdown, the major pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, for evaluation of possible significance of glucose deprivation in ERN1 dependent regulation of glioma growth.
Methods. The expression level of PRKA related genes was studied in control (transfected by vector) and ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells under glucose deprivation by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Results. It was shown that the expression level of PRKACA and PKIA genes was down-regulated in control glioma cells treated by glucose deprivation, but PJA2 gene was up-regulated. At the same time, the expression of four other genes (PRKAR1A, PKIG, AKAP12, and PPP3CA) was resistant to this experimental condition. Furthermore, ERN1 knockdown of glioma cells significantly modified the effect glucose deprivation on the expression almost all studied genes. Thus, treatment of glioma cells with inhibited ERN1 enzymatic activity by glucose deprivation lead to a more significant down-regulation of the expression level of PKIA and to suppression PRKAR1A gene expressions. Moreover, the ERN1 knockdown introduced up-regulation of PKIG and AKAP12 gene expressions in glioma cells treated by glucose deprivation and eliminated the sensitivity of PJA2 gene to this experimental condition.
Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrated that ERN1 knockdown significantly modified the sensitivity of most studied PRKA related gene expressions to glucose deprivation and that these changes are a result of complex interactions of variable endoplasmic reticulum stress related and unrelated regulatory factors and contributed to the suppression of glioma cell proliferation and their possibly chemoresistance.
Objective. The aim of the present investigation was to study the expression of genes encoding IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and some other functionally active proteins in U87 glioma cells under silencing of polyfunctional chaperone HSPB8 for evaluation of the possible significance of this protein in intergenic interactions.
Methods. Silencing of HSPB8 mRNA was introduced by HSPB8 specific siRNA. The expression level of HSPB8, IRS1, HK2, GLO1, HOMER3, MYL9, NAMPT, PER2, PERP, GADD45A, and DEK genes was studied in U87 glioma cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Results. It was shown that silencing of HSPB8 mRNA by specific to HSPB8 siRNA led to a strong down-regulation of this mRNA and significant modification of the expression of IRS1 and many other genes in glioma cells: strong up-regulated of HOMER3, GLO1, and PERP and down-regulated of MYL9, NAMPT, PER2, GADD45A, and DEK gene expressions. At the same time, no significant changes were detected in the expression of HK2 gene in glioma cells treated by siRNA, specific to HSPB8. Moreover, the silencing of HSPB8 mRNA enhanced the glioma cells proliferation rate.
Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrated that silencing of HSPB8 mRNA affected the expression of IRS1 gene as well as many other genes encoding tumor growth related proteins. It is possible that the dysregulation of most of the studied genes in glioma cells after silencing of HSPB8 is reflected by a complex of intergenic interactions and that this polyfunctional chaperone is an important factor for the stability of genome function and regulatory mechanisms contributing to the tumorigenesis control.