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Abstract

Coronaviruses are extremely susceptible to genetic changes due to the characteristic features of the genome structure, life cycle and environmental pressure. Their remarkable variability means that they can infect many different species of animals and cause different disease symptoms. Moreover, in some situations, coronaviruses might be transmitted across species. Although they are commonly found in farm, companion and wild animals, causing clinical and sometimes serious signs resulting in significant economic losses, not all of them have been classified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as hazardous and included on the list of notifiable diseases. Currently, only three diseases caused by coronaviruses are on the OIE list of notifiable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases. However, none of these three entails any administrative measures. The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 infections that have caused the COVID-19 pandemic in humans has proved that the occurrence and variability of coronaviruses is highly underestimated in the animal reservoir and reminded us of the critical importance of the One Health approach. Therefore, domestic and wild animals should be intensively monitored, both to broaden our knowledge of the viruses circulating among them and to understand the mechanisms of the emergence of viruses of relevance to animal and human health.

Abstract

Introduction

Atrial fibrillation may potentially contribute to oxidative stress to a greater extent than chronic heart failure. The aim of the study was to compare the serum total antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant defence of dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation with those of subjects with chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm and healthy controls.

Material and Methods

A total of 33 dogs were divided into three groups: dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation (CHF + AF; n = 12), chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm (CHF + SR; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 12). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined.

Results

SOD activity and serum TAC were significantly lower in the study groups than in control animals. Catalase activity was significantly higher and plasma GPx activity significantly lower in dogs with CHF + AF compared with the CHF + SR and control dogs.

Conclusion

The results suggest that chronic heart failure in dogs significantly impacts the serum TAC and the antioxidant enzymatic defence, while plasma GPx activity is markedly lower in dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The role of that imbalance needs further investigation.

Abstract

Introduction

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the main pathotypes causing gastroenteritis, particularly in young immunocompromised hosts. The study reports the prevalence, characterisation, and molecular epidemiology of EPEC from piglets in northeastern India.

Material and Methods

A total of 457 faecal samples were collected, from which 1,286 E. coli strains were isolated and screened by PCR. The resultant EPEC strains were serotyped and phenotypically characterised for resistance against 15 antimicrobials. Also, the phylogenetic sequence was analysed for 11 selected strains.

Results

A total of 42 strains (3.26%) belonged to atypical EPEC, of which, 15 (35.71%, and 2.29% of the 654 strains from this farm type) were isolated from organised and 27 (64.29%, and 4.27% of the 632 strains from this farm type) from unorganised farms; further, 5 (11.90% of the EPEC strains and 1.51% of the 330 strains from this breed) were isolated from the indigenous breeds and 37 (88.10%, and 3.87% of the 956 strains from this breed) from crossbred piglets. Serogroups O111 (11.9%) and O118 (7.14%) were the most prevalent of the 10 present. Sequence analysis of a length of the eaeA gene of 11 isolates of the region showed them to have 100% homology with each other and their identity ranged from 99.4% to 99.7% with GenBank reference sequences. All the EPEC isolates were multi-drug resistant, showing the highest resistance to amoxicillin (80.9%) and cephalexin (76.19%).

Conclusion

The study highlighted the association of EPEC with piglet’s diarrhoea in northeastern India. EPEC isolates belonged to many serotypes and phenotypically all were multi-drug resistant with close genetic homology.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay for detection of myxoma virus (MYXV) in the classical form of myxomatosis and to compare its diagnostic performance to that of molecular methods (IAC-PCR, OIE PCR, and OIE real-time PCR).

Material and Methods

A panel of MYXV-positive samples of tissue homogenates with low (1 PCR unit – PCRU) and high (3,125 PCRU) virus levels and outbreak samples were used for method comparison studies. The validation parameters of the AGID assay were assessed using statistical methods.

Results

The AGID attained DSe of 0.65 (CI95%: 0.53–0.76), DSp of 1.00 (CI95%: 0.40–1.00), and accuracy of 0.67 (CI95%: 0.55–0.76). The assay confirmed its diagnostic usefulness primarily for testing samples containing ≥3,125 PCRU of MYXV DNA. However, in the assaying of samples containing <3,125 PCRU of the virus there was a higher probability of getting false negative results, and only molecular methods showed a 100% sensitivity for samples with low (1 PCRU) virus concentration. The overall concordance of the results between AGID and IAC-PCR was fair (ĸ = 0.40). Full concordance of the results was observed for OIE PCR and OIE real-time PCR when control reference material was analysed.

Conclusions

Findings from this study suggest that AGID can be used with some limitations as a screening tool for detection of MYXV infections.

Abstract

Introduction

Coinfection of goose parvovirus (GPV) and duck circovirus (DuCV) occurs commonly in field cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS). However, whether there is synergism between the two viruses in replication and pathogenicity remains undetermined.

Material and Methods

We established a coinfection model of GPV and DuCV in Cherry Valley ducks. Tissue samples were examined histopathologically. The viral loads in tissues were detected by qPCR, and the distribution of the virus in tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Results

Coinfection of GPV and DuCV significantly inhibited growth and development of ducks, and caused atrophy and pallor of the immune organs and necrosis of the liver. GPV and DuCV synergistically amplified pathogenicity in coinfected ducks. In the early stage of infection, viral loads of both pathogens in coinfected ducks were significantly lower than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). With the development of the infection process, GPV and DuCV loads in coinfected ducks were significantly higher than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). Extended viral distribution in the liver, kidney, duodenum, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius was consistent with the viral load increases in GPV and DuCV coinfected ducks.

Conclusion

These results indicate that GPV and DuCV synergistically potentiate their replication and pathogenicity in coinfected ducks.

Abstract

Introduction

Horses (Equus caballus) are susceptible to tick-borne diseases. Two of them, Lyme borreliosis due to Borrelia burgdorferi and granulocytic anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated in Algerian horses. The diseases have been less extensively studied in horses and results pertinent to Algeria have not been published.

Material and Methods

Blood samples were obtained from 128 horses. IgG antibodies directed against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and ELISA. The potential effects of age, gender, breed, and health status on seropositivity were also evaluated.

Results

Using IFAT, 28 (21.8%) and 25 (19.5%) animals were positive for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Using ELISA, 19 (14.8%) and 33 (25.9%) animals were positive for these bacteria.

Conclusion

The study shows that horses in Algeria are exposed or co-exposed to tick-transmitted zoonotic bacterial species.

Abstract

Introduction

A high-performance liquid chromatographic–diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of amoxicillin in medicated feedingstuffs was developed and validated. The method was used to investigate the quality requirements of animal feedingstuffs (declared content of active substance and feed homogeneity).

Material and Methods

Two-gram samples were extracted by potassium phosphate buffer solution. Extracts were filtered and directly analysed by HPLC-DAD without further clean-up. Amoxicillin was separated by acetonitrile and 0.01M phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column.

Results

This method provided average recoveries of 76.1 to 81.6% with coefficients of variation (CV, %) for repeatability and reproducibility in the ranges of 3.7–7.2% and 5.3–7.6%, respectively. The limit of detection was 51.2 mg/kg and limit of quantification was 103.0 mg/kg.

Conclusion

The method was successfully validated and proved to be efficient, precise, and useful for quantification of amoxicillin in medicated feedingstuffs.

Abstract

Introduction

Although peripheral blood analysis has become increasingly automated, microscopy is the only available method for the diagnosis of anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. The aims of the study were to compare RBC volume data obtained with two different analysers and by manual assessment of smears and to compare this data between dogs in various stages of heart failure secondary to degenerative mitral valvular (DMV) disease. The impact of diuretic administration on RBC morphology was also assessed.

Material and Methods

Sixty-eight dogs, 56 in different stages of DMV disease and 12 as healthy controls, were studied. Impedance and flow cytometry haematological analyses were performed for each animal. Additionally, two smears were prepared for manual analysis. RBC structure, staining, and size differences were recorded.

Results

There were no significant differences between the blood morphological parameters assessed using haematological analysers nor between dogs receiving diuretic treatment and those not treated. Based on the manual smear, significantly higher erythrocyte anisocytosis was observed in the dogs with symptomatic DMV disease than in the control group.

Conclusion

Haematological analysers based on impedance and flow cytometry provide reliable and comparable morphological results in dogs with heart failure. However, microscopic assessment of blood smears is a more reliable tool to detect erythrocyte anisocytosis.

Abstract

Introduction

The objective of this research was to evaluate the antibody response to multiple doses of an inactivated mixed vaccine against Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica, and to investigate the influence of age at time of vaccination in the field.

Material and Methods

Healthy female Holstein calves received the vaccine at the age of 5–12 days and 2, 3, or 4 weeks later in the first experiment or at 1, 2, or 3 weeks of age and 4 weeks later in the second. Blood samples were collected at each vaccination and 3 weeks after the booster dose. Based on the antibody titres after the vaccinations, calves were divided into positive and negative groups for each of the bacteria. Calves in the control group were vaccinated only once at the age of 19–26 days.

Results

Antibody titres against H. somni and P. multocida were significantly increased by the booster. After the second vaccinations, the titres against each bacterium were higher than those of the control group, and the M. haemolytica-positive percentage in calves with high maternal antibody levels (MAL) exceeded that in calves with low MAL. In the first experiment, a majority of the M. haemolytica-positive calves tended to have received the primary dose at seven days of age or older.

Conclusion

A booster dose of the inactivated bacterial vaccine in young Holstein calves increased antibody production and overcame the maternal antibodies. Calves should be vaccinated first at seven days of age or older.

Abstract

Introduction

African swine fever (ASF) was officially reported in Vietnam in February 2019 and spread across the whole country, affecting all 63 provinces and cities.

Material and Methods

In this study, ASF virus (ASFV) VN/Pig/HaNam/2019 (VN/Pig/HN/19) strain was isolated in primary porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells from a sample originating from an outbreak farm in Vietnam’s Red River Delta region. The isolate was characterised using the haemadsorption (HAD) test, real-time PCR, and sequencing. The activity of antimicrobial feed products was evaluated via a contaminated ASFV feed assay.

Results

Phylogenetic analysis of the viral p72 and EP402R genes placed VN/Pig/HN/19 in genotype II and serogroup 8 and related it closely to Eastern European and Chinese strains. Infectious titres of the virus propagated in primary PAMs were 106 HAD50/ml. Our study reports the activity against ASFV VN/Pig/HN/19 strain of antimicrobial Sal CURB RM E Liquid, F2 Dry and K2 Liquid. Our feed assay findings suggest that the antimicrobial RM E Liquid has a strong effect against ASFV replication. These results suggest that among the Sal CURB products, the antimicrobial RM E Liquid may have the most potential as a mitigant feed additive for ASFV infection. Therefore, further studies on the use of antimicrobial Sal CURB RM E Liquid in vivo are required.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrates the threat of ASFV and emphasises the need to control and eradicate it in Vietnam by multiple measures.