The pandemic COVID-19 is caused by a highly transmissible severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which showed the highest morbidity and mortality rates among the other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. However, the numbers of infected cases as well as mortality rates are varying from population to population. Therefore, scientist has urged the SARS-CoV-2 genome and host genetic factors investigations. Recently, new SARS-CoV-2 variants has been detected and though to affect the diseases transmission from human to human. In this mini-review, we aimed to explained detected SARS-CoV-2 variants that thought to influence the COVID-19 severity and transmission using the literature.
Determination of polyp types requires tissue biopsy during colonoscopy and then histopathological examination of the microscopic images which tremendously time-consuming and costly. The first aim of this study was to design a computer-aided diagnosis system to classify polyp types using colonoscopy images (optical biopsy) without the need for tissue biopsy. For this purpose, two different approaches were designed based on conventional machine learning (ML) and deep learning. Firstly, classification was performed using random forest approach by means of the features obtained from the histogram of gradients descriptor. Secondly, simple convolutional neural networks (CNN) based architecture was built to train with the colonoscopy images containing colon polyps. The performances of these approaches on two (adenoma & serrated vs. hyperplastic) or three (adenoma vs. hyperplastic vs. serrated) category classifications were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of imaging modality on the classification was also examined using white-light and narrow band imaging systems. The performance of these approaches was compared with the results obtained by 3 novice and 4 expert doctors. Two-category classification results showed that conventional ML approach achieved significantly better than the simple CNN based approach did in both narrow band and white-light imaging modalities. The accuracy reached almost 95% for white-light imaging. This performance surpassed the correct classification rate of all 7 doctors. Additionally, the second task (three-category) results indicated that the simple CNN architecture outperformed both conventional ML based approaches and the doctors. This study shows the feasibility of using conventional machine learning or deep learning based approaches in automatic classification of colon types on colonoscopy images.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in the city Wuhan, China in December 2019. The high rates of infection led to quick spread of the virus around the world and on March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the pandemic of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2. The pharmaceutical companies and institutions have been working towards developing a safe and effective vaccine in order to control the pandemic. The biology of SARS-CoV-2 is briefly discussed describing the transcription of the virus and the receptor recognition. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is important in the attachment of the host cell and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is involved in the replication of the virus making them good candidates for drug and vaccine targets. To date many different strategies have been employed in the development of vaccines and a number of them are in the phase III of clinical trials with promising results. In this mini-review, we assessed the literature throughly and described the latest developments in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for humans. The main benefits and drawbacks of each platform is evaluated and the possible changes in the vaccine effectivity due to naturally occuring SARS-CoV-2 mutations have been described.
A critical step during in vitro sexual propagation of terrestrial orchids is the treatment of the microscopic seeds with a disinfecting solution that kills bacteria and fungi attached to the seeds. This treatment is necessary to prevent infection of the culture vessels. At the same time, the treatment serves to scarify the seeds, a process that disrupts seed dormancy and initiates germination. The literature is inconclusive with respect to the proper combination of disinfecting solution strength and treatment duration. Both factors should be adapted to each species to guarantee minimal infection rate without damaging the embryo. This research aims to compare three disinfection/scarification methods for seeds of Anacamptis laxiflora (Lam.): (i) soaking in 0.5% NaClO, (ii) soaking in 0.5% NaClO, then centrifugation, and (iii) presoaking the seeds in sucrose solution, then soaking in 0.5% NaClO. The seeds were soaked in the disinfecting solution for 5 to 85 min. Following scarification, the seeds were sown in modified Malmgren nutrient medium. Infected and germinated vessels were counted at 41 and 189 d after sowing. We found that the longer the chemical treatment, the lower the infection rate, and the higher the germination rate. There was no significant difference in germination rate between the NaClO and the NaClO-plus-centrifugation method; in fact, the slight savings in disinfection time effected by centrifugation were more than offset by the added complexity of the method. Moreover, we found that centrifugation significantly delays germination. The sucrose presoak-plus-NaClO method was superior to plain NaClO, as the sucrose stimulates the germination of microbial spores on the surface of the seeds, making them easier to kill. Perhaps seeds with thicker testa as well as whole immature capsules could benefit even more from the pretreatment in sucrose solution.
The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Chloroquine (CLQ) against Adriamycin (ADR) induced hepatotoxicity. ADR is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of many cancer types, but it causes hepatotoxicity. CLQ is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, and pneumonia caused by Covid-19. Rats were divided into four groups: Control group, ADR group (2 mg/kg Adriamycin, one in three days for 30 days, i.p.), CLQ group (50 mg/kg Chloroquine, per day for 30 days, i.p.), ADR+CLQ (2 mg/kg Adriamycin, one in three days for 30 days, i.p. and 50 mg/ kg Chloroquine, per day for 30 days, i.p.). Animals were sacrificed, and liver tissues were extracted for further examinations. Histopathological changes in liver tissues were scored and IL-17 immunostaining was performed to determine the expression levels among experimental groups. Bodyweights in the ADR group decreased significantly compared to the Control group and CLQ group. Furthermore, bodyweight in ADR+CLQ group was significantly higher compared to ADR group. The histopathological score was significantly higher in ADR group when compared to Control and CLQ group while CLQ administrations reduced the damage induced by ADR in the ADR+CLQ group. IL-17 immunoreactivity was considerably increased in the ADR group. On the other hand, IL-17 expressions of ADR+CLQ were substantially less compared to ADR group. We suggest that CLQ can be used as a therapeutic agent to reduce the detrimental effects of ADR, thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.
Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing menace, mainly caused by the rapid genetic modification of bacterial strains and new alternations in behavior favoring their survival. There is no doubt that the irrational use of antibiotics is one of the factors contributing to the rise of this problem, whether that be in hospitals or at a community level. Although the extent of this influence is yet to be learned, it is definite that this is of great impact on the endemic disease patterns in developing areas specifically and on an expanding global issue generally.
Purpose and scope
This paper will provide a narrative review of relevant previous publications of antibiotic misuse to portray a clearer picture of its causes and consequences in Sudan.
The PICO method was used by which evidence-based research websites were scanned for key words. Results were assessed for relevance and then critically appraised. All papers included were summarized and presented in a narrative review format.
From a total of 9 research papers from Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar search engines, 7 were selected, presented, and discussed.
Given the facts of high bacterial resistance that has emerged worldwide catastrophically, the implementation of a meticulous surveillance system designed to restrict the irrational use of antibiotics by the public and health sectors alike with adjunct educational and training programs relevant to the regional epidemiology and economy will massively contribute to a lower resistance rate due to antibiotic misuse.
In the 21st century, additive manufacturing technologies have gained in popularity mainly due to benefits such as rapid prototyping, faster small production runs, flexibility and space for innovations, non-complexity of the process and broad affordability. In order to meet diverse requirements that 3D models have to meet, it is necessary to develop new 3D printing technologies as well as processed materials. This review is focused on 3D printing technologies applicable for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are thermoplastics regarded as a green alternative to petrochemical polymers. The 3D printing technologies presented as available for PHAs are selective laser sintering and fused deposition modeling. Stereolithography can also be applied provided that the molecular weight and functional end groups of the PHA are adjusted for photopolymerization. The chemical and physical properties primarily influence the processing of PHAs by 3D printing technologies. The intensive research for the fabrication of 3D objects based on PHA has been applied to fulfil criteria of rapid and customized prototyping mainly in the medical area.
Eating Disorders (EDs) refer to a group of psychiatric conditions in which disorderly food intake results in impaired psychological functioning or physical health. Nowadays, these disorders represent an increasing problem in modern society. There are no universally validated clinical parameters to confirm, disprove or simply help to identify EDs except for diagnostic criteria on psychiatric basis. The aim of this study was the assessment of Vitamin D3 level in patients with EDs to understand if it might be a valid clinical biochemistry parameter useful as prognostic marker.
The sample consists of 28 female patients, who suffer from EDs. Blood samples were examined in terms of blood count, glucose, cholesterol and Vitamin D3 levels. The other clinical biochemistry parameters were analysed to understand if the Vitamin D3 was the only altered parameter.
The parameters that appear altered are glycemia, cholesterol and, in particular, Vitamin D3. Significant results were obtained comparing controls with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (p value= 0,003) and with purging-type anorexia nervosa (p value= 0,007).
There are currently no universally validated and diagnostic reliable clinical biochemistry parameters for EDs but, in the light of the findings, but our research indicates the potential use of Vitamin D3 as a biomarker for anorexia nervosa.
Level of evidence
Level III: Evidence obtained from a single-center cohort study.
Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important and common problem in companion animals, especially dogs. Moreover, these dogs may serve as a reservoir of pathogenic strains of E. coli that may cause enteric and extra-intestinal infections in humans and other animals. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of E. coli isolates from diarrheic dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. In fecal samples of 200 dogs with diarrhea, 147 E. coli strains (73.5%) were isolated and characterized by the standard bacteriological techniques (culture, biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). Out of the 147 positive isolates, 45, 50, and 52 were from Elkanemi Park, Magaram, and Sabon gari wards respectively. The isolates show 100% resistance to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, 96.6% to amoxicillin, and 95.9% to gentamicin, while all (100%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates showed multiple antimicrobial resistance. The result of the current study showed that dogs in Maiduguri are important reservoirs of multidrug-resistant E. coli. Therefore, it is important to adopt and apply guidelines for the correct use of antimicrobials in small animal practice to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals.
Introduction: Introduction: Both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) are important dementia syndromes that overlap in their clinical features and clinical course, neuropathological abnormalities, and also therapeutic approach. Nevertheless it is still unclear whether DLB and PDD are two different disorders that require differentiation or are one clinical entity within a spectrum of Lewy body disease. Currently these disorders are mainly distinguished on the basis of the relative timing of the onset of symptoms of dementia and parkinsonism. The present paper presents current concepts on the pathogenesis of both disorders and their possible overlap.
Material and methods: Online databases in the field of DLB and PDD were searched for to find potentially eligible articles. Only most recent articles published after the year 2000 were chosen.
Results: The clinical features of DLB and PDD are similar and include dementia with hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations, as well as parkinsonian signs. Also cognitive deficits are similar in PDD and in DLB, with predominance of executive dysfunction, visual-spatial deficits and memory impairment. Neuropathological changes in both disorders involve the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites within brainstem, limbic and neocortex, as well as loss of midbrain dopamine cells, and loss of cholinergic neurons in the nuclei of ventral forebrain.
Conclusions: Similarities in clinical manifestation, neuropsychological deficits and neuropathological abnormalities may suggest that both DLB and PDD are two different phenotypes of the same disorder. This review article presents current knowledge on similarities and differences between these two clinical entities and raises the question whether they require differentiation or not.