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Abstract

Results of investigations on the patterns of distribution and dispersal of alien species of trees and shrubs in the territory of a steppe protected area, Yelanetskyi Step Nature Reserve (Mykolaiv Region, southern Ukraine), are presented. We registered within this protected area 10 alien woody species. For the most widespread ones (Ulmus pumila L., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Robinia pseudoacacia L.), we carried out ecological analyses. In order to establish the scope of impact of ecological factors upon these species, their specificity, and interdependence between ecological factors, the phytoindication method was applied (Didukh, 2012). The results of our analysis conducted on 12 main ecological factors (as outlined by Didukh, 2011), such as soil water regime (Hd), variability of damping (Fh), soil aeration (Ae), soil acidity (Rc), nitrogen content (Nt), salt regime (Sl), carbonate content in soil (Ca), thermoregime (Tm), climate humidity (Om), continentality (Kn), cryoregime (Cr), and light intensity (Lc), show that dispersal of model alien species does not have ecological limitation. However, E.angustifolia and R.pseudoacacia have the strongest capacity to penetrate the steppe communities, especially disturbed ones. Further dispersal of these alien species in the studied area and adjacent territories is hampered only by the integrity of the structure of steppe communities.

Abstract

In our empirical research, we examined the agriculture of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. We surveyed the situation of agriculture through farmers using certain criteria to rank the situation within the framework of a SWOT analysis. The responses received from farmers in the county were quantified and evaluated on the basis of what these farmers have considered to be true. The interdisciplinary study of agriculture is a timely and important task. It can be enforced on the basis of systemic contexts studying not only food production but also environmental issues, preservation of rural habitats, employment, and regional development.

Abstract

Today, the countries of the world have to face several global challenges with regard to the plans they have developed together. The protection of the natural values of our country and their sustainable use is receiving more and more attention in today’s society. In order to achieve the above, a change of perspective in social strategy built on knowledge and professional training is inevitable. An environmental strategy paradigm shift emphasizing the protection of biodiversity, resources, and landscape cultivation is also necessary. The need for documents providing a basis for the paradigm shift is indubitable; however, more efforts are needed to induce fundamental changes by plans detailed in the documents.

The aim of this study is to review the current environmental protection initiatives in Hajdú-Bihar County and to assess the degree to which the relevant plans are harmonized and that the objectives outlined in the documents overlap.

Abstract

The article deals with the contamination of soil in the vicinity of the D1 motorway caused by the application of chemical de-icing agents in winter. In the selected area, during a period of one year (from October 2017 to October 2018), soil samples were regularly collected once a month at five different distances from the road. Chloride concentrations in aqueous extracts of the soil were monitored and the degree of toxicity was established for the selected living organisms. The resulting chloride load was evaluated with respect to the precipitation activity and the amount of de-icing salt applied in the area. The highest concentrations of chlorides were found at a distance of 2 m from the road. At the distance of 20 m from the road, the concentration of chlorides in the soil was approaching the chloride concentration found in the referential background set for the selected locality. The concentrations of chlorides at the first three measured distances from the road corresponded to the quantity of de-icing salt applied and the precipitation activity recorded during the relevant months. The maximum concentrations were reached in April 2018. Ecotoxicological testing of aqueous extracts of soil did not confirm any significant toxicity to the selected living organisms. From the tested organisms, the white mustard was identified to be the most sensitive to this type of toxicity; the increased toxicity was observed only for aqueous extracts of soil samples collected at distances dI (0 m) and dII (1 m), thus, it could have been related to the increased concentration of chlorides during the relevant period.

Abstract

Tourism is an industry with a strong long-term potential of becoming one of the key industries in securing the country’s economic growth. Tourists are nowadays interested in not only getting to know the cultural-historical peculiarities, but also the way of life and cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the individual regions. Kysuce region is characterised by scattered settlement, which used to be a significant type of settlement in remote and inaccessible parts of the area in the past. Nowadays, however, the majority of the objects of the scattered settlement either serve as holiday chalets or are uninhabited.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the recreational potential of tourism in Kysuce region. Based on the established methodology, the individual villages were divided into five categories: areas with less suitable potential of tourism development (PTD), areas with suitable PTD, areas with quality PTD, areas with PTD of high quality and areas with the most significant PTD. These categories have been established based on the point evaluation of the potential of input indicators – natural potential, cultural-historical potential, recreational infrastructure and environmental infrastructure. The most significant PTD in the monitored area is the village of Oščadnica (279 points), and the villages of Horný Vadičov (231 points), Raková (224 points) and Nová Bystrica (219.5 points) were evaluated as the areas with PTD of high quality. Agro-tourism in this region is, however, the least developed, despite the location of the region being very favourable for such an activity. Its development could lower unemployment and offer a source of income of the inhabitants, or reduce movement of the inhabitants into other regions of Slovakia. Subsequently, the character of the landscape with all its key functions for sustaining the quality of the environment could be preserved.

Abstract

The genetic diversity of common bean accessions were assessed using seed storage protein markers. At regional level, accessions from the two major growing regions showed the highest level of gene diversity (H = 0.322, I = 0.485, and H = 0.312, I = 0.473), which can be exploited for the future improvement of the crop. Based on phaseolin, the major storage protein in common bean, the majority of the accessions (86%) were grouped under Mesoamerican gene pool. Seed proteins were also used to differentiate various Phaseolus species, indicating the usefulness of seed storage proteins in species identification in this genus.

Abstract

Climate change is becoming increasingly frequent. This paper presents the relationship between climate change and the appearance of certain pathogens in oak forests in area Šumadija (central Serbia). The aim of the work is based on experimental sample of land, to carry out research in healthy and infected oak forests and to determine the effect of pathogenic fungi: Microsphera alphitoides and Ophiostoma quercus Armillaria mellea, and the impact in growth in oak forests. Research was conducted on three experimental fields. One pathogen was identified in each experimental field.

The effect of fungi is followed by a different soil depth, and in the root zone in oak forests. Furthermore, our goal was to reveal the behavior of fungi in old and young oak forests. The tests were done on nutritive substrates and land suspensions. The research yielded satisfactory definite results, that will be the basis for further monitoring and research.

Abstract

This article is focused on the site conditions of the cultural mountainous West Carpathian landscape (Liptovská Teplička village, Central Slovakia) affected by historical agricultural land use, which also included relief and soil modifications leading to the formation of specific mosaic of agrarian landforms – AL (narrow productive plots separated by balks having character of terraces and mounds). It is based on a pair comparison of sites located side by side; the former is located on the productive plot (former arable land), while the latter is a balk. The pairs were selected in order to capture the representative sample of AL within diverse natural conditions, land cover and management. In order to assess the differences between individual AL, continuous soil water content (SWC) measurements using EC-5 soil moisture sensors were performed. The sensors provided continuous measurements of hourly soil volumetric water content rates (VWC, m3/m3). The data were recorded from April 2018 until December 2018. These data were used to assess individual monitoring localities in terms of SWC temporal stability. Furthermore, at each sampling location, an analysis of soil organic matter content, soil texture and stone content was performed. This research was also supplemented by indirect estimation of some site conditions based on phytoindication method using Ellenberg’s indicator values for moisture, soil reaction, nutrient content, continentality, temperature and light. Our results can be concluded as follows: i) the SWC temporal stability assessment revealed the clear effect of AL, however, it was difficult to identify which factors associated with AL typology were the most significant. The high differences between similar AL types revealed the fact that land use, management and rock content (both at productive plots and balks) affect the SWC temporal stability rather than AL typology and their orientation within the slope, ii) phytoindication method did not show statistically significant differences in site conditions between productive plots and balks, despite the fact that there were some significant differences confirmed in species composition, especially between productive plots and dolomite mounds. These differences are related to a higher number of calciphilous and termophilous species preferring ecotones and forests in mounds and group of mesophilous meadow species in productive plots. In summary, it seems that identified differences in both SWC temporal stability and floristic composition between productive plots and balks reflect the management regime rather than site conditions and formation of mounds represents relatively the most significant impact of traditional agricultural land use on the local environment.