It is the labour market that decides about the popularity of a field of studies. The area where the highest number of job offers appears is reflected in the offers of universities. However, it is very often mentioned in many media that future students decide to choose social and humane studies whose market chances are evaluated on a relatively low level.
In the past 10 years, because of the decrease in the birth rate, the number of Polish students at various universities declined to about 700,000 people. In these years, it was observed that the number of studying men and women declined (to almost 30%). The lowest decrease in the number of students was observed at technical universities because of the fact that, at that time, the number of female students increased there. The group of female students constitutes the one that has increased in numbers in the past 10 years.
The authors of this article, using a multidimensional comparative analysis method, conducted a research on studying field preferences of female students, which is a dominant group of people studying at Polish universities.
The main aim of the article is to provide analysis on the notion of the right to be forgotten developed by the CJEU in the ruling Google v. AEPD & Gonzalez and by the General Data Protection Regulation within the context of the processing of personal data on the Internet. The analysis provides the comparison of approach towards the notion between European and American jurisprudence and doctrine, in order to demonstrate the scale of difficulty in applying the concept in practice.
The aim of this article is to examine Georgia's economic transformation and try to answer the question: Why Georgia is not able to have a stable and high economic growth? In this article, it will be an attempt to answer this question by taking into account the weak private sector in Georgia, as one of the main burdens of economic growth. The article attempts to analyse the economic transformation in Georgia. The reasons for its failure and consequences, also to estimate its possible impact on the nowadays economic situation in Georgia. The latter will be examined from the perspective of Institutional Theory. The article will try to answer the above-mentioned question and problems, taking into account the institutional changes in Georgia. The article explains the unsuccessful path of transformation and tries to connect its results to the current economic situation in Georgia.
The issue of active protests against the injustice of the law aimed at bringing about a change in that conduct is of great relevance for members of the world society. There is no escape from admitting the fact that even the most perfect political system may and will from time to time produce unjust laws. What is as yet unclear is the principles of justification in favour of a civil disobedient who commits an open breach of that laws. The present article defines the features that make an act of civil disobedience something more than a simple breach of a law. The purpose of this article is to justify civil disobedience as a unique political category, which makes social choice and legal change possible.
From a historical point of view, the linkage between core labour standards and global trade has been recurrent for 200 years. Supporters of such a correlation argue that countries that do not respect the International Labour Organization (ILO) core labour standards gain competitive advantage that can result in a ‘race to the bottom’ phenomenon. Critics claim that protectionism and false humanitarianism is hidden behind this concept. Despite a long debate on this subject, there is still significant divergence in power between developed and developing countries. A response to the plight of many workers is still needed. Thus, the author will focus on some attempts to resolve existing problems, mainly: whether labour standards should be left to the ILO, included in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agenda or both forces should be combined; whether the inclusion of a social clause in trade agreements could improve the situation of workers; whether the imposition of trade sanctions on countries that do not adhere to the core labour standards could ensure the extension of fundamental rights of workers on their citizens. The author will also comment on the concept of a global labour and trade framework agreement (GLTFA), that is, the proposal based on international framework agreements and ILO tripartite system.
Green marketing in Kosova evolved as a means for enterprises to adjust to increased market competitiveness. The objective of the study was to identify how consumers’ environmentally friendly behaviour drove the demand for new eco-value market offerings. Concurrently, the study aimed to prove how domestic producers of non-alcoholic beverages used their capabilities to deliver new eco-value market offerings. The research is based on a survey conducted in Kosova. Analysis focused on statistical correlation testing of consumers’ green marketing awareness, behaviour toward the environment, information search, trust in advertising and labels displaying health benefits of beverages and attitudes towards a willingness to pay more for organic non-alcoholic beverages compared with non-organic ones. Significant findings were the positive influence of family and media in shaping consumers’ environmentally friendly behaviour and, in contrast, consumers’ mistrust in the marketing activities of producers as a consequence of misleading advertising.
In international relation, estoppel is a principle whereby a state is not able to say or act against what it said or did before. The theory of estoppel was originated in the past from the English law system, which was later incorporated into international law. Its main purpose is to prevent a State from benefiting from its inconsistent attitudes, and thus, causing damage to another State. Therefore, estoppel must meet the main conditions. First, the expression of the said State leads to the assumption of the estoppel must be clear and non-ambiguous. Second, this expression must be expressed voluntarily, unconditionally and must be well authorized. Third, there must be a goodwill trust from another State into the expression of a State giving that expression, resulting in damage to the State with this trust or to the benefit of the expressive side. The paper examines the principle of estoppel in international law and the practice of applying this principle in cases tried at the International Court of Justice. On that basis, the paper discusses explaining the factors that constitute an estoppel situation for Vietnam in order to reject the China’s wrong interpretation of the 1958 Diplomatic Note of the late Prime Minister Pham Van Dong.
Environmental protection has gotten much attention and been prioritized in policy making for economic – social development of countries around the world, including Vietnam. The policies have been gradually institutionalized into law. Environmental Protection Law comes into existence in Vietnam as in other developing countries, which could be affirmed as the latest legal field. Before Environmental Protection Law was issued as an independent legal document by the National Assembly, other environmental regulations in Vietnam covered some aspects of environmental protection to meet management need without targeting the protection of environmental factors. Environment or environment-related regulations have been found in many separate legal documents. In order to meet the growing demand for integration, Vietnam needs to continue to reform environmental regulations. The paper analyzes the Vietnamese environmental regulations and practical implementation, thereby giving some suggestions.