The reform of the self–governments in Slovakia caused the transfer of competencies from state authorities to municipalities. Every municipality is in accordance with Act no. 369/1990 Coll. on the Municipal Establishment obliged to ensure original and transferred competences for its inhabitants. However, for objective reasons, not all municipalities are able to perform them. Municipalities began to use the possibility of mutual contractual cooperation in accordance with the amendment to the Act on Municipal Establishment, under which municipalities can cooperate with each other for the purpose of carrying out a specific task or activity. Such cooperation between municipalities also exists for the purpose of exercising competence in the field of the building order. Pursuant to Act no. 50/1976 Coll. as amended, each municipality is a building authority. The aim of the paper is to qualitatively assess the reasons for contractual cooperation between the municipalities of the Nitra (NR) and Košice (KE) regions in the area of the building order (by using the method of structured interview). So far, 2 649 municipalities, which are a part of 189 joint building offices (JBO), have used the possibility of mutual contractual cooperation in the SR. Specifically, in the NR region there are 343 municipalities, which are part of 26 JBOs and in the KE region 391 municipalities, which are part of 28 JBOs. The qualitative method was used to find out the opinions of the building offices. Based on the obtained results, an optimal solution for problems of cooperation of municipalities was proposed by adopting new legislation, namely by the allocation of building offices to the seats of registry offices.
The paper analyzes the development of the legislation of cooperative law since the late 1940s. It points out the positives, but also the negatives in the development of agricultural cooperative in Slovakia. The number of cooperatives, as well as the area of their farmed land decreased significantly after 1989 and the number of legal entities operating on the land has expanded. In spite of this, however, according to the collected data, it can be stated that in 2018, cooperatives managed 34,25% of agricultural land in Slovakia. Based on the available statistical data on the development of the structure of agricultural cooperatives and on the basis of legal analysis of the legislation, the authors wish to emphasize the merits of the cooperative form of business as well as the advantages of the cooperatives as a separate form of business under current market conditions. The cooperative, as a separated form of business, is still advantageous for all areas of business including the agricultural business. The advantage of a cooperative form of business is highlighted by its flexibility, relative simple and more liberal than other legal form of business.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the oldest EU policy and is one of the supranational areas and policies of the European Union (EU). CAP introduced diverse legal and economic tools for comprehensive and smart restructuralisation of the Slovak agriculture and rural areas. With the purpose to improve the CAP implementation in Slovakia, the project “Effectiveness of Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia” (CAPE) was prepared and submitted by the Association of Agrarian and Environmental Lawyers. The project was approved by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency and it has been granted from September 2019 (Decision Nr. 2019–1802/001.001, Project Nr. 611792–EPP–1–2019–1–SK–EPPJMO–SUPPA). The idea to submit project proposal aroused from the need to contribute to improving the Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia. The main aim of the project is to perform the interdisciplinary research in the field of the effectiveness of CAP implementation in Slovakia with the specific objectives to discuss and advise local, regional, national policymakers and decision–makers on different aspects of the CAP implementation, transfer the research results and the expertise to the practice and to disseminate the project outcomes among interested target groups and civil society.
The current developments in the European legislative protection against the introduction of plant pests is problematic in terms of its quality and in relation of the EU law to the law of EU Member States. The quality of this legislation is significant by non-uniform wording used in Directive 2019/523 and in Council Directive 2000/29/EC, especially in geographical indications, names of taxonomic units of organisms and listing of requirements, conditions, states, plants, plant products and organisms. Another problematic phenomenon of the uncertainty of the EU Member states caused by very slow European law-making process regarding to adoption of implementing regulations, which needed to enter into force on December 14th 2019 based on Regulation 2016/2031 repealing the present legislation in plant pest protection covered by seven older directives. Despite of this fact, the EU amended simultaneously this older legislation only a very short time before the date of repealing.
Green Public Procurement is currently a voluntary instrument to promote Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy. Surveys in this field help to understand how individual States, Public Authorities and Organizations, are approaching this voluntary instrument and thus how far they support Eco-Innovations and Sustainable Economy. Our survey focuses on mapping of units of local self-governments in the Slovak Republic that carried out Green Public Procurement in the category of paper products through the Electronic Contracting System (ECS) in 2017. We consider local self-government units to be major consumers of paper products, especially because of their extensive administration, what makes them a target group to promote the use of Green Public Procurement in a given category in practice. The total number of contracts awarded through the ECS in 2017 was 471. As the results show, the share of Green Public Procurements in the total number of Public Procurements in the Slovak Republic in 2017 was not satisfactory. In order to improve the situation, it is necessary to further deepen the targeted dissemination of examples of good practice in Green Public Procurement.
This research is aimed at Developing a virtual classroom model using shared learning and syntactic learning To develop creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University by researching and developing 3 steps of research: 1) Create a virtual classroom style using shared learning and Synthetics learning to develop creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University. 2) Study the results of using the virtual classroom format by using joint learning and synthetics learning to develop the creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University. 3) Presenting a virtual classroom using shared learning and Synthetics learning to develop the creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University. The sample group consists of undergraduate students, Bachelor of Education Program Roi Et Rajabhat University Early Childhood Education Select by group sampling method (Cluster Sampling) The experimental group consisted of 30 students studying with a virtual classroom model using common learning and Synthetics learning to develop the creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University with a control group of 32 people, normal students, statistics used to analyze data such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation Non-independent test statistics and independent test statistics and statistics for testing the relationship by value Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Upon completion of the comparative study of achievement and study the satisfaction of students towards learning in a virtual classroom model Data analysis using mean, standard deviation T-test, the research found that; 1. Virtual classrooms using collaborative learning and synthetics to develop the creativity of the College of Education students Roi Et Rajabhat University is comprised of 6 components, namely 1) Learning system on virtual classroom 2) Communication and collaboration tools 3) Media content and learning resources 4) Student and instructor roles 5) Large group and sub-group 6) Learning Evaluation for the learning process together with 3 steps: 1) Process before class 2) Procedure during study consists of sub steps, which are 2.1) preparation for learners 2.2) classes consist of activities in large groups; stimulation and pulling ideas to create motivation, telling purpose, review previous knowledge, learn and present lessons, set the topic of the work by voting, point out learning methods and join activities in small groups (Activities in small groups set topics by voting, prepare and seek information, brainstorming, create works presenting work within a small group, comment vote to vote in large group showing comments, votes, votes and 3) evaluation 3 to 5 qualified persons assessed to certify the virtual classroom format by using mutual learning and learning of synthetics teaching to develop the creativity of higher education students in the field of education, education, science and related fields. There is a comment on the model developed by agreeing the most.
The present research was aimed to validate the construct validity of the administrator role indicators for encourage efficiency on learning management in school under the Office of the Basic Education Commission. A stratified random sampling method was used to select a sample of 150 school administrators under the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The research instrument used was a 5 rating scale questionnaire with content validity from 0.60-1.00. The data analyses were first order a confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the study indicated that the administrator role indicators for encourage efficiency on learning management in school under the Office of the Basic Education Commission comprised 15 indicators, is valid and fit to empirical data i.e. Chi-square = 87.675, degree of freedom (df) = 76, p-value = 0.170, GFI = 0.931, AGFI = 0.892, and RMSEA = 0.019.
At present, the issue of agricultural land protection resonates in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Individual approaches to the subject are in line with the relevant field, but the basis should always be grounded in the current legislation. The paper is a technical description focused on identification of the basic terms, relations, problems, goals and challenges and possible legal or legislative solutions of the physical protection of the agricultural soil and the legal protection of the agricultural land as an object of legal relations in the Slovak Republic. Achievement the goals and their legal realisation is possible only if certain legal obstacles are resolved on the national level and level of European Union. This paper represents a basic analysis, which can possibly serve as a support for an attempt to resolve the defined problems by the legislative means.
‘Indebtedness’ of the tribes increases their woe. They live in inaccessible terrain with inadequate infrastructure. Living on subsistence, majority of them depend on borrowings to finance their budget deficit. Being in debt tends to become perpetual with several drastic consequences like being subject to exploitation through bonded labour, losing of assets or transfer of ownership of land and other assets under several pre-text to non-tribal or private lenders, etc. This indebtedness itself has other adverse social impacts on the tribes like the low level of education, ill-health, employment status etc. which has a spiral relationship with indebtedness. This study seeks to identify the various facets of their indebtedness from close quarters, find the extent of absorption of institutional credit by these tribes and identify the gap in their likely absorption perpetuating their indebtedness. It is based on the analysis of primary data collected through structured schedules directly from the respondents. It has been analysed using relevant statistical and econometric tools. It finds the perpetual aspect of tribes' indebtedness due to various ingrained social, cultural and economic factors. It suggests ways to end this perpetuity and amalgamate them on the path of development.
One of the most common forms of evidence used by the Public Prosecutor in a courtroom to prove a case is DNA evidence. The DNA evidence process started when the police collected the physical evidence relevant to the alleged offence at the crime scene. The collected evidence will then usually be sent to the Department of Chemistry Malaysia for DNA analysis. The chemist will extract the DNA from the relevant physical evidence by using specific techniques. The outcome of the analysis will be used to complete the investigation of the case. Being an independent organization, the Chemistry Department strives to provide impartial forensic science analysis. Thus, from the analysis, sometimes DNA evidence does not necessarily implicate the accused with the alleged offence but may also disclose the involvement of a third party in the alleged offence that may cast doubt on the prosecution’s case. This can be seen in the Federal Court’s case of Public Prosecutor v Hanif Basree Abdul Rahman  4 CLJ 1. The evidence will then be presented by the prosecution before the court to assist judges in making the right decisions. This indicates the important role played by an expert in the court decision making process. In this context, questions always arise as to the probative value of DNA evidence given by experts in the courtroom. Can the court convict a person solely on DNA evidence? This article focuses on the position of DNA experts in Malaysia under section 45 of the Evidence Act 1950. It was found that although the DNA evidence is given by the experts, the probative value depends on the nature of the evidence itself.