In the process, inorganic complexes of amidoamines obtained from the interaction of natural petroleum acid and oleic acids with diethylenetriamine have been developed and their effectiveness as inhibitor-bactericides has been investigated. The effect of the synthesized reagents on the kinetics of the corrosion process of steel and the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria in 3% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 and in the biphasic water–isopropyl alcohol medium with H2S dissolved has been analyzed. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the corrosion process were calculated. The adsorption of the complexes was investigated using the Langmuir isotherm and the correlation constant was determined. State of the metal surface was investigated by SEM method in CO2 and H2S media, with and without inhibitors, and the metal surface contact of complexes was studied by computer molecular simulation.
The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide into valued chemicals such as formic acid has the most promising potential in applying renewable energy for useful materials and mitigating the greenhouse effect. However, the studies still focus on developing catalysts with low price and high catalytic properties. In this study, nitrogen atoms were decorated into carbon structure by a unique ultrasonic method, then the nitrogen-doped carbon material was applied as catalyst in CO2 reduction, it exhibited excellent electrochemical activity, 4 times higher than the normal method. The improved activity should be attributed to the interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms through analysis.
This work presents the development of a solid product with a high water content (99.08%) and water retention properties. Water was chosen as a potential carrier of a volatile active substance and water retaining properties of material were studied at a temperatures and relative air humidity values with the support of the theory of drying. The study first confirmed the role of Gibbs’ phase rule in the research of solid-gas phase equilibrium, and second presented drying kinetics developed from Fick’s second law and expressed with the first term of the Fourier equation. Solutions of equations for phase equilibrium and mass transfer enabled the calculation of Luikov’s parameters, which are important for equilibrium relations and for the diffusivity of water in a solid for mass transfer prediction. The obtained thermodynamic and kinetic parameters enabled product characterisation that may be important for the prediction of retention times.
In this study, activated carbon and humic acid powder were fixed by the cross-linking reaction of sodium alginate. Calcium alginate/activated carbon/humic acid (CAH) tri-system porous fibers were prepared by the wet spinning method and freeze-dried for the removal of tetracycline in aqueous solution. Subsequently, the morphology and structure of CAH fibers were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effect of pH, contact time, temperature and other factors on adsorption behavior were analyzed. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to fit tetracycline adsorption equilibrium data. The dynamics data were evaluated by the pseudo-second-order model, the pseudo-second-order model and the intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption of tetracycline on CAH fibers was a spontaneous process.
The aim of the study was to present numerical strength analysis of the virtual knee and hip joints for the most popular tribological pairs used in prosthetic arthroplasty based on the Finite Elements Method. FEM makes it possible to calculate the stress in particular elements of the tested models. The research was dedicated to elucidate abrasive wear mechanisms during surface grinding of a polyethylene UHMW and a metal elements of endoprostheses. Strong adhesion was found between the abrasives and workpieces, which might be attributed to the chemical bonding between the abrasives and workpieces in synovial liquid. Therefore, the wear of UHMWPE is both chemical and physical. Abrasive wear effect, as a result of the abrasive wear process, is associated with material loss of the element surface layer due to the separation of particles by fissuring, stretching, or micro-cutting.
In this paper, the effects of coupling agent and lignin extracted from waste cotton stalks in Xinjiang on thermal-oxygen aging properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were studied. The melt index test and indoor thermal oxygen aging test was carried out on the samples treated with coupling agent. The mechanical properties, surface micromorphology, rheological properties and element composition of the materials before and after 30 days of aging were studied. The results showed that the titanate coupling agent was the best for improving the melt index and mechanical properties of PP/cotton stalk lignin composites. After the 30-day thermal oxygen aging test, the samples with 2% lignin had the best impact strength and retention rate of fracture elongation, reaching 68.9% and 77.3% respectively. The sample with 3% lignin content had the smoothen surface, no crack appeared. After aging, the increase of C=O was the least, and the crystal peak area decreased less.
Sodium lignosulfonate (SL) was prepared from waste of cotton lignin (CL) through hydrothermal reaction method. Orthogonal experiment was designed with value of OIT as objective function. Polypropylene (PP) is a polymer produced by the addition polymerization of propylene. It is a white waxy material with a transparent and light appearance, which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical packaging. The results of GPC and TG analysis revealed that SL has stable thermal properties, which means that SL has the potential to be an antioxidant for PP materials. In addition, the scavenging effects of CL and SL were studied. The obtained results exhibited that the SL can obviously increase the scavenging effect on free radicals and it is a kind of new synthetic antioxidant with antioxidant property, which could effectively delay the oxidation of PP. Subsequent rheological experiments proved that the SL/PP sample can improve the heat-resistant oxygen performance of PP under the thermal oxygen shearing environment. Combined with the effect of SL on the mechanical properties of PP before aging, SL has a stabilizing effect on PP thermal oxygen aging.
The work presents the impact of reagents concentration and the drying process on the efficiency of obtaining magnesium hydroxide and its specific surface area. Magnesium sulphate(VI) within the concentration range of 0.7–2.0 mol/dm3 was used in the research as magnesium feedstock and sodium hydroxide was used as a precipitating agent within the same concentration range. The process of obtaining magnesium hydroxide was carried out with a 25% excess of the precipitating agent in relation to the reaction stoichiometry. The obtained suspension was separated by way of multi-stage sedimentation with the use of acetone and freezing samples. Depending on the concentration of reagents the efficiency of obtaining magnesium hydroxide fell within the range of 88–99%, whereas the specific surface area – within 115–609 m2/g, while the high purity of samples above 99% of magnesium hydroxide was maintained.
SCMNPs@Uridine/Zn is utilized as an environmental-friendly and efficient heterogeneous nanocatalyst for two one-pot four-component condensation reactions, containing hydrazine hydrate, arylaldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate, and barbituric acid to yield tricyclic fused pyrazolopyranopyrimidine derivatives (5a-q), and hydrazine hydrate, arylaldehyde, malononitrile, and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate/diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate to yield 3-methyl carboxylate substituted pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives (8a-y) under solvent-free conditions with high to excellent yields. The main advantages of this process are easy work-up, short reaction times, no chromatographic purifications, and recyclability of the catalyst for a minimum of six runs without any significant decrease in yields of the products. Also, the prepared catalyst SCMNPs@Uridine/Zn was synthesized and fully characterized by various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Raman spectroscopy.
Ammonium nitrate (AN) is considered to be a very hazardous and difficult to handle component of mineral fertilizers. Differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry was used to determine the possible inhibiting effect of selected magnesium compounds on thermal decomposition of AN. Each additive was mixed with AN to create samples with AN:magnesium compound mass ratios of 4:1, 9:1 and 49:1. Most of analyzed compounds enhanced thermal stability of ammonium nitrate, increasing the temperature of the beginning of exothermic decomposition and decreasing the amount of generated heat. Magnesium chloride hexahydrate was determined to accelerate the decomposition of AN while magnesium sulphate, sulphate heptahydrate, nitrate hexahydrate together with magnesite and dolomite minerals were defined as inhibiting agents.