This article presents a comprehensive analysis of changes in urban development (including certain types of public buildings) and changes in the routes of Lviv’s tram lines over the last 80 years, related to the territorial and demographic development of the city. For this purpose, maps comparing these elements of urban infrastructure between 1932 and 2016 were developed. The analysis was carried out based on a plan of Lviv from 1932, contemporary vector data taken from OpenStreetMap, ArcGIS basemaps, Google Street View panoramic images, information contained in interwar Lviv guides, and supplementary information from other sources.
In the modern world of mass information being reduced to colourful images, maps have the chance to become a medium that transmits important information in an attractive format. Due to time pressure, many cartographic publications that have a short life span on the internet contain a lot of methodological errors. Viewers receive an image that is hard to interpret, incomplete or even incorrect. The author aims to summarize and classify the cartographic content of social media, while bearing methodology, the role of the cartographer and users’ reactions to that content in mind. The springboard to online discussion is mainly a map topic. Their design or methodology is of little interest in most cases. This may be due to insufficient knowledge of how forms (their correctness and quality) shape messages. Hence the role of the cartographer is important, what can be seen – among methodological remarks – as one of conclusions. It seems that map-makers are becoming more expert, and are guiding map lovers and amateur cartographers towards creating good, effective and elegant maps.
The aim of the study presented in this article is to identify and analyse the problems which arise when creating a 3D model based on two-dimensional data and its import into a game engine and then developing algorithms to automate this process. The authors decided that they would use the Unity game engine to create an application presenting the results of modelling the interior of the Main Building of the Warsaw University of Technology. The work was divided into stages in which problems related to the adopted method were identified and the automation of selected activities was suggested. The main tasks performed during the study included processing the source data into a 3D model along with the correction of errors made during this process, detailing the model by adding characteristic elements of the building’s interior, and creating the so-called game scene in the Unity game engine along with the implementation of the application’s behaviour. The developed software can be integrated with indoor navigation systems, and the implemented scripts can be used during the preparation of other models.
Astrophysics was born in the nineteenth century as a “New Astronomy” (in the words of Samuel Langley, 1884), a knowledge built primarily by amateurs who explored deep space by studying the Sun, stars and nebulae. They were credible enough to interest physicists who did research on the properties of radiation and hence came to constitute a solid and recognised discipline. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of artisanal knowledge in the construction of this new discipline at two distinct moments. The first, when artisans worked to find a standard to normalise the manufacture of the glass with which the lenses of refracting telescopes were manufactured. The most recognised of these artisans was Fraunhöfer. The second moment occurred when the experience of artisan knowledge enabled the manufacture of instruments that improved the traditional classification of the magnitude of the stars. The search for standards led to an alliance between artisans and scientists during the same period in which spectroscopy was carried out. In this case, a unit of luminous intensity was sought that could serve as a standard to classify the stars by their luminosity. Industries, university laboratories and astronomers interested in solar astronomy (such as Karl F. Zöllner), collaborated with the artisan manufacturers of measuring devices, and gave rise to a paradigmatic case of science and industry transfer.
Our aim is to explore the links between standardisation, the quantifying spirit, and the discipline mathematics. To do so, we consider the work of Gauss, renowned as a pure mathematician, but professionally an astronomer, and one heavily engaged with all kinds of measuring and precision initiatives. He contributed to the mathematical correction of data with the method of least squares; to observations of high precision in his geodetic work; to the introduction of absolute measures in his collaborations with Weber on terrestrial magnetism; and to the rationalisation of weights and measures in the state of Hannover. Ultimately, the question is to what extent such precision and standardisation activities may have been rooted in the mathematical way of thinking. Mathematics in our tradition has had a strong contemplative bias (theory, theorein in Greek means to contemplate), but it’s a fact that mathematics has always had a non-eliminable technical side.