Slovenian communities were eager to re-establish autonomous local governments after the introduction of democracy. These newly established municipalities corresponded territorially to the previous regime’s local communities; however, only 194 municipalities were formed from over 1,200 communities. Some municipalities comprised a cluster of communities, some of which later became proponents of splits, due to the sense that they were being neglected by the rest of the municipality and in the hope of receiving more funds as separate municipalities. Although stricter criteria for establishing municipalities were imposed and the scope of formal initiators was narrowed to limit the splits, the proponents found loopholes in the form of political patrons (deputies) and, as a last resort, sought justice from the constitutional court. The splits occurred in both underdeveloped and developed municipalities. The breakaway municipalities were not more developed than the mother municipality; about a third were less developed. There were no clear financial advantages in creating separate municipalities.
The increase in demand for food and the need to predict the impact of a warming climate on vegetation makes it critical that the best tools for assessing crop production are found. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been proposed as a direct indicator of photosynthesis and plant condition. The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of estimating ChlF from spectral vegetation indices derived from Sentinel-2, in order to monitor crop stress and investigate ChlF changes in response to surface temperatures and meteorological observations. The regressions between thirty three Sentinel-2-derived VIs, and ChlF measured on the ground were evaluated in order to estimate the best predictors of ChlF. The r-Pearson correlation and polynomial linear regression were used. For maize, the highest correlation between ChlF and VIs were found for NDII (r=0.65) and for SIPI (r=-0.68). The weakest relationship between VIs and ChlF were found for sugar beets. Despite this, it should be noted that the highest correlation for sugar beets appeared for EVI (r=0.45) and S2REP (r=0.43). The results of this study indicate the need for a synergy of low and high resolution satellite data that will enable a more detailed analysis for estimating fluorescence and its relation to climatic conditions, environmental aspects, and VIs derived from satellite images.
This article analyses the accuracy of the presentation of forests on Polish topographic maps. Four test polygons were selected, differing in forest coverage and spatial distribution of forest areas in order to improve the objectivity of the study. All the polygons were located in Roztocze. Four maps were tested: System 1965 (1:50 000), GUGIK80 (1:100 000), PUWG92 (1:10 000), and VMap L2 (1:50 000). The forest areas from the maps and aerial photographs were vectorised; then the photographs were converted into an orthophotomap that constituted the reference material. All materials were coherent in terms of content validity. After vectorising the range of the forests, sampling was conducted within the hexagonal fields. A comparison of the obtained values provided the basis for maps that presented the errors. The analysis permitted several conclusions to be drawn, generally stating that the credibility of maps within the scope of presenting forest areas depends on the scale and purpose of the map, and that any analyses based on these maps should assume that the results should have higher tolerance levels.
Dipole-dipole electrical resistivity tomographic method was applied to investigate the subsurface cavities at Staff Welfare Hospital & School Quetta. A total of 890-meter profile line was covered along five smaller profile lines and fracture zones with maximum 21 meters interval. The cavity system along profile line-1 and 2 was very restricted and had no direct impact on infrastructure while major cavity beneath the building was traced at profile line-3 and line-4 thus constituting a ~20m wide cavity system with 3-4 small interconnected cavities between depths of 7 to 21 meters. This system was also traced at profile line-4 at a depth of 10 meters having a reduced width of 10m. At profile line-5, a few other cavities were detected that proved imperceptible due to limitations in data acquisition. To conclude, the cavity systems traced in profile line-3 and profile line-4 were the most perilous ones and are commonly the foremost reason for building collapse.
The research conducted relates to university students’ leisure practices in urban settings. A three-dimensional framework to picture and analyse students’ leisure, focusing on its temporal, economic and spatial dimensions, is proposed. The analysis is based on empirical evidence from two European cities, namely Lodz, Poland and Turin, Italy. First, the findings show that students’ leisure consumption goes beyond visiting music and disco clubs, and it is oriented towards meeting at home, visiting pubs and cafés, and also shopping for non-daily products. Secondly, the geographies of the majority of students’ leisure activities do not spatially overlap with the places of their education and accommodation. Thirdly, the data obtained on students’ leisure consumption in Lodz and Turin reveal many similarities, despite the contextual differences between the two cities.
The aim of this work is to verify whether accessibility to public services in city districts of Warsaw, corresponds to real-estate prices. We introduce a new index named the “Urban Services Accessibility Index” (USAI) which compares the availability of public services within districts of a city in three dimensions: access to healthcare, access to education, and availability of public transport. We found that the districts of Śródmieście, Ochota and Żoliborz have the highest apartment prices and USAI values. Warsaw exhibits a clear distance-decay pattern in USAI values which correlates well with average apartment prices. This pattern results from poor development of public services in peripheral city districts (e.g. Bemowo, Białołęka, Wilanów) while the central district of Śródmieście stands out as the unquestionable leader in terms of accessibility to the mentioned services. USAI proved itself to be a robust method in the comparative analysis of city districts’ development.
The objective of this paper is to describe bioclimatic conditions in Lublin and Radawiec in the period 1976–2015 using the UTCI index. The paper shows that in Lublin and Radawiec, the most frequent biometeorological conditions caused no heat stress and were neutral for the human organism. At the analysed stations, biometeorological conditions causing cold stress occurred more frequently than those causing heat stress. Biometeorological conditions in the analysed period were characterised by high year-to-year variability. We observed that in recent years there was an increase in frequency of conditions favouring heat stress and a decrease in conditions favouring cold stress.
The main goal of this paper was to assess the intensity of heat stress in Lower Silesia, Poland, during selected weather events characterized by high air temperatures. The complex impact of weather on the thermal load of the human organism is presented using the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). The analysis was carried out for the 2015 and 2018 summer seasons and compared with the multiannual period of 1971–2018. It was based on meteorological data from the IMGW-PIB stations of Wrocław, Jelenia Góra and Śnieżka. In order to examine how heat conditions affect UTCI in different geographical regions, stations located at different altitudes and representing the lowlands, the lower mountain zone and the summit zone of the Sudetes Mountains were considered. The research showed that during the most extreme thermal events, UTCI values in the lowlands and the lower mountain zones can be among the highest heat stress classes. In the summit zone, the maximum UTCI values are usually classed as ‘no thermal stress’.
This article concerns the process of population concentration in large urban centres in China. The authors conclude that this process is reflected in the increase in the number of cities of a million or more, and the increase in their share of China’s total population, as well as in the country’s total urban population; the process is here termed ‘macropolization’. We analyse and assess the process of macropolization and examine changes in the size structures of these cities (one million or more), and the accompanying transformation in the spatial differentiation of urban population concentrations in China. In addition, the effect that macropolization has on the level of urbanization of individual provinces is shown, as is its significance in the overall share of urban population. The macropolization process from 1950 to 2015 has been assessed. The data was collected from Chinese statistical offices, United Nations reports and the available literature on the subject.
In mountain areas, air circulation plays a major role in the forming of the climate. This paper examines how it influences thermal stress in the northern Carpathians. The Niedźwiedź’s classification of air circulation was applied. Thermal stress was assessed by Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Daily meteorological and circulation data for the period 1986–2015 were used for 20 stations in Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. Air circulation was found to have a significant impact on thermal stress. The highest UTCI values are observed at Ca+Ka (centre of the high and anticyclonic wedge or ridge of high pressure) and the lowest values at N+NE and W+NW circulation; at the Southward stations, UTCI is higher than in the Northward ones; thermoneutral days are more frequent on the southward than on the northward slopes; during N+NE, E+SE and W+NW circulation and for heat stress days, the greatest thermal privilege of the southward slopes is observed at E+SE, S+SW, Ca+Ka and Cc+Bc (centre of low and through of low pressure) types of circulation.