One of the challenges faced by surveyors in acquisition of accurate spatial data for mining applications is the risk involved in acquiring data in rugged terrains and difficult or inaccessible areas. With the advent of modern technology, accurate geospatial data can now be safely obtained for proper mining documentation periodically. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for data acquisition in mine surveying has been a viable means of obtaining reliable geospatial data rapidly and efficiently. The main goal of this study is to develop a semi-automatic UAV-based system for the acquisition of spatial data required for the estimation of the volume of earthworks. A DJI Phantom 4 quadcopter was used for the acquisition of image data of the project site, while the images were processed into a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Pix4Dmapper v2.0.1, which was then imported into the MATLAB-based system developed for the automatic estimation of the volume of earthworks. The volume obtained from the automated system was thus compared with the volume obtained directly from the Pix4Dmapper software, having specified a contour interval of 1 and an allowable error rate of ±3% as the standard error. While ±1.02% error was observed in the volume estimated using the Pix4Dmapper, the developed automated system yielded an estimated precision of ±0.81% in its volume estimation, which proves to be more robust for automatic volume estimation in terms of accuracy and precision.
For several decades, Nigerian cities have been experiencing a decline in their biodiversity resulting from rapid land use land cover (LULC) changes. Anticipating short/long-term consequences, this study hypothesised the effects of LULC variables in Akure, a developing tropical rainforest city in south-west Nigeria. A differentiated trend of urban LULC was determined over a period covering 1999–2019. The study showed the net change for bare land, built-up area, cultivated land, forest cover and grassland over the two decades to be −292.68 km2, +325.79 km2, +88.65 km2, +8.62 km2 and −131.38 km2, respectively. With a projected population increase of about 46.85%, the study identified that the built-up land cover increased from 1.98% to 48.61%. The change detection analysis revealed an upsurge in built area class. The expansion indicated a significant inverse correlation with the bare land class (50.97% to 8.66%) and grassland class (36.33% to 17.94%) over the study period. The study observed that the land consumption rate (in hectares) steadily increased by 0.00505, 0.00362 and 0.0687, in the year 1999, 2009 and 2019, respectively. This rate of increase is higher than studies conducted in more populated cities. The Cellular Automata (CA) Markovian analysis predicted a 37.92% growth of the study area will be the built-up area in the next two decades (2039). The 20-year prediction for Akure built-up area is within range when compared to CA Markov prediction for other cities across the globe. The findings of this study will guide future planning for rational LULC evaluation.
In Poland, the cadastre is the basic register which is the source of information on cadastral entities and their property. Therefore, it should constitute a reliable source of information in the scope of establishing the range of law, its nature, but also the subject of its ownership. However, it is necessary to be able to not only check the current information on the legal status and its scope, but also review past statuses or determine the rights that will influence real estate in the future. The cadastre and related rights are changing very dynamically over time, and each state has a very strict reference to the previous state. Therefore, in order to manage real estate in the most effective way, it is necessary to record temporal attributes of cadastre objects.
The main objective of this paper is to define the legal issues related to the possibility of registration at the time of creation or modification of object in the Polish cadastre. This paper includes analyses of both Polish legal regulations and European standards and norms. Moreover, the article presents the results of comparative analyses concerning the data model of cadastre and INSPIRE and Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) data models for the theme cadastral parcel in terms of temporal aspect.
Stereo photogrammetry has been used in this study to analyse and detect movements within the Lecture theater of School of Environmental Technology of Federal University of Technology Minna via the use of Kalman filter algorithm. The essential steps for implementation of this method are herein highlighted and results obtained indicate Ins. Mov.s (velocity) ranging from ±0.0000001 m/epoch to ±0.000007 m/epoch with greater movements noticed in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction of the building. Because the observed movements were insignificant, the building has been classified as stable. However, a longer period of observation with a bi-monthly observational interval has been recommended to enable decision on the rate of rise/sink and deformation of the building.
The article presents an original optical system to measure displacements across joints or cracks in building structures. It describes the concept of system operation, algorithms to be followed and results of practical tests that have been performed.
The proposed solution is based on digital photos taken with a non-metric digital camera, modified by defining its internal orientation elements and correction of lens distortion during calibration, constituting the measurement instrument registering the pictures of markers. QR (Quick Response) codes are proposed to be the markers. Being digitally processed, a set of registered images allow visualising the measured size of occurred displacements.
Owing to this solution, it is possible to obtain data on a mutual position of two or more QR codes in the form of translation elements in 3D space and appropriate three orientation angles. Appointed elements are unequivocal in spatial interpretation and not limited by dimension.
As the tests performed by the authors show, the results are more than satisfactory. The proposed measurement technology is an objective system of data acquisition, suitable for automating the whole monitoring process of displacements of building structure elements concerning joints and cracks.
Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.
Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.
Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.
The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.
A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.
The subject of the considerations presented in the article is the question of the criteria according to which the comparables, in the market value estimating process, should be selected. As the most important in the selection of comparative properties, the factor of similarity in relation to the subject property (measured by the Euclidean distance) was considered. As the key issue, the similarity assessment criterion and the influence of the adopted critical value of this criterion on the accuracy of estimates were chosen. The analysis of the above was carried out with taking into account the role of the significance of independent variables (measured by their correlation with the vector of the dependent variable). The results of the simulation tests carried out in the variants set by the criteria adopted were presented. On this basis, it has been shown that there is a potential most relevant solution in the collection of obtainable estimation results. This solution corresponds with the smallest sum of the differences of model prices (accepted as known) and corresponding estimates. The found minimum occurs for a specific layout of the above criterion values only.