The Kushk-e-Bahram Manto-type Cu deposit is located in central Iran, within Eocene to Oligo–Miocene volcanic strata which occur in the central part of the Uremia-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA). Propylitization, silicification, argillization and carbonatization are the main types of alteration to have affected the pyroclastic and volcanic rocks. There are high amounts of oxide minerals, including malachite, azurite, hematite, magnetite and goethite. Three types of primary FIs have been determined in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit, namely; I: two-phase liquid-rich FIs (L+V), II: mono-phase liquid FIs, III: two-phase vapour-rich FIs which have been identified based on petrographical studies. Based on FI studies of co-existing quartz and calcite, homogenization temperatures (Th) must have been between 67 and 228°C, with an average of 158°C. Moreover, salinity is between 14.0–30.3 wt% NaCl, equivalent to a 19.6% average. Fluid density values vary from 0.8 to 1.1 gr/cm3. Based on FI data and related diagrams, the depth of their trapping was estimated to be <200 m and ore formation occurred at pressures of <50 bars. Consequently, mineralogy, host rock and FIs characteristics in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit are similar to the Manto-type Cu deposits in Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic belts of Iran and South America.
An overview is presented of gemstones from eastern Kazakhstan in terms of their geographical distribution, geological provenance and genesis, gemmological characteristics, historical use and current applications. Locally occurring precious, semi-precious and decorative stones were extracted and traded along the northern part of the Silk Road that traversed the area in earlier historical times. Currently, non-metallic minerals, which largely originate from mafic igneous and metamorphic bodies of the Altay and Kalba Mountains of Kazakhstan, still are insufficiently known and exploited industrially only marginally. For the present study, selected depositories of coloured stones at the Mineralogy Museum of the East Kazakhstan State Technical University were used, supplemented by the newly collected material during personal fieldwork in the southern Altay between 2005 and 2015. Standard documentation of the gemstones selected is provided, alongside with their known occurrence sites and an evaluation of the perspective gemstone-bearing deposits with respect to regional morphostructural bedrock characteristics. The most precious gemstones include topaz, corundum (sapphire and ruby), beryl (emerald and aquamarine), coloured tourmalines, agates as well as diamonds. Despite the great variety, the majority of these traditionally most valued stones are currently commercially not viable, unlike high-quality decorative stones.
The present study focuses on alternative methods of exploiting lignite in comparison to conventional opencast mining and combustion in power plants for the generation of electricity. In Poland, opencast lignite pits cover large areas, creating social and environmental conflicts. In order to stabilise the production level of electricity and reduce the negative effects of opencast mining, alternative ways of exploiting lignite are suggested, one of these being underground gasification in situ. The Złoczew lignite deposit, which will most likely be exploited in the near future, provides an opportunity to discuss the unconventional method of underground coal gasification (UCG). On the basis of technological and geological criteria that have been established to determine the suitability of Polish lignite for underground gasification, resources to be used this way have been estimated. Through gasification, over 15 million tonnes of lignite can be utilised, which is about 2.5 per cent of resources of the Złoczew deposit intended for opencast mining. With this in mind, we suggest to take action by starting a pilot installation, to be followed by a commercial one for underground gasification after completion of superficial mining. Naturally, any future application of this method will be preceded by assessment of geological conditions at the Złoczew opencast pit.
Leonard Horner (1785–1864) was a pioneer in the study of loess. His 1836 paper on the geology of Bonn contained detailed descriptions of loess in the Rhine valley. He identified and presented loess as an interesting material for geological study. He investigated loess in the crater of the Rodderberg with Charles Lyell in 1833. He presented the first significant paper on loess in Britain in 1833, but it was not published until 1836. With the assistance of G.A. Goldfuss and J.J. Noegerath he conducted early studies of the Siebengebirge and published the first geological map of the region, and the first picture of loess, at Rhondorf by the Drachenfels. He became the eleventh person to be included in the list of loess scholars which Charles Lyell published in volume 3 of the Principles of Geology. These were Leonhard, Bronn, Boue, Voltz, Steininger, Merian, Rozet, Hibbert in 1833, Noeggerath, von Meyer in 1835, Horner in 1837. Horner arrived after the publication of his studies on the loess at Bonn in 1836.
During the Rupelian–Chattian, the Qom Basin (northern seaway basin) was located between the Paratethys in the north and the southern Tethyan seaway in the south. The Oligocene deposits (Qom Formation) in the Qom Basin have been interpreted for a reconstruction of environmental conditions during deposition, as well as of the influence of local fault activities and global sea level changes expressed within the basin. We have also investigated connections between the Qom Basin and adjacent basins. Seven microfacies types have been distinguished in the former. These microfacies formed within three major depositional environments, i.e., restricted lagoon, open lagoon and open marine. Strata of the Qom Formation are suggested to have been formed in an open-shelf system. In addition, the deepening and shallowing patterns noted within the microfacies suggest the presence of three third-order sequences in the Bijegan area and two third-order depositional sequences and an incomplete depositional sequence in the Naragh area. Our analysis suggests that, during the Rupelian and Chattian stages, the depositional sequences of the Qom Basin were influenced primarily by local tectonics, while global sea level changes had a greater impact on the southern Tethyan seaway and Paratethys basins. The depositional basins of the Tethyan seaway (southern Tethyan seaway, Paratethys Basin and Qom Basin) were probably related during the Burdigalian to Langhian and early Serravallian.