This article assessed community participation in the provision of environmental sanitation infrastructure in Akure, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for the study. Four residential zones: the traditional core, the transition zone, the peripheral zone and the public housing district were identified, this was with a view to showcasing the variation in the level of contributions and efforts of different communities based on the delineated areas towards the provision of environmental sanitation infrastructure in the study area. Twenty residential areas were identified across the residential zones of the study area out of which ten areas which represented 50% of the total areas were selected. Ten percent of the total number of buildings in the selected areas were subsequently sampled, resulting in the selection of 180 residents for questionnaire administration. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics with frequency used for univariate analysis and cross tabulation for bivariate and multivariate analysis as well as the use of chi-square for inferential statistics. Findings revealed that community participation did not play a leading role in providing environmental sanitation facilities in Akure, but that the government did. This shows that most of the environmental facilities in the area are provided by the government, thus revealing the overdependence of the residents on the government for the provision of environmental sanitation infrastructure. Further findings revealed that most of the challenges faced in the study area in terms of providing environmental sanitation infrastructure had a significant influence on the provision of these facilities. Thus, the study showed that challenges significantly hindered the provision of environmental sanitation facilities in the area.
As a result of the activity of industrial enterprises, atmospheric air is being contaminated by gaseous pollutants. Such substances as chlorine and hydrogen chloride are considered to be harmful for both humans and plants. Vegetation is a universal filter that is able to combat the environmental pollution by industrial emissions with the help of appropriate technical facilities. The aim of this study is to analyze the level of accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of woody plants that grow in the area of forest plantations of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises. The objects of the study were the species of woody plants in the area of protective plantations of a number of enterprises in Zaporizhzhya: ZTMC, ZALК, ZABR, Zaporizhstal, Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant, Zaporizhvohnetryv, Ukrgrafit and Zaporizhtransformator. We established that during the vegetation period, a gradual accumulation of the element was the most intense in mature leaves, whose growth had already ceased. The maximum amount of chlorine was found at the end of the vegetation period. The concentration of the pollutant in leaves of woody plants in the area of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises is linearly proportional to the level of emissions of the pollutant into the atmosphere by a given enterprise. The largest coefficient of relative accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of such plants as Catalpa bignonioides, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juglans regia, Populus alba, which can be used as information sites for the purpose of bioindication of atmospheric air pollution with chlorides, was established.
In the submitted paper, we have analysed the results of a systematic survey of grassland communities, performed in Hodrušská hornatina highland, in Štiavnické vrchy mountains. The main aims of the research were: i) syntaxonomical classification of grassland vegetation; ii) analysis of the main ecological gradients in species composition; iii) evaluation of the influence of environmental factors on species composition of grasslands. The dataset included 153 phytosociological relevés recorded on grasslands. Grassland communities were classified within five associations: Holcetum lanati, Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, Anthoxantho odorati-Agrostietum tenuis, Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti; and the successional and transitional stages belonging to alliances Arrhenatherion elatioris and Bromion erecti. The results of the Detrended Correspondence Analysis support our assumption that the main environmental gradient in species composition on grassland is related to moisture. The results of the Redundancy Analysis show that all used environmental variables explained 3.4% of the variability of the species data. The most important factors affecting the species composition were altitude, slope, distance from settlements, and management.
This study shows the impact of the reforestation program by some tree species (Pinus halepensis, Cupressus sempervirens and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) on the soil physicochemical parameters in south-western Algeria steppe. The study was realized on soil samples from the Touadjeur site. One hundred soil samples were taken from the field, followed by physicochemical analyses in the laboratory. A comparison of the soil elements between reforested and unreforested sites considered as a control was carried out. The results show that there are differences in the physicochemical parameters of the soil between the reforestation and the non-reforestation ones constituted by a steppe vegetation. The ANOVA one way test shows a highly significant difference change in soil physical parameters, moisture, holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, but no change in apparent density, actual density and color. Also, from a chemical point of view, the differences concern the organic matter, organic carbon, pH and certain soil contents. The main differences in soil properties between the reforestation sites and the control site, reflect the consequences of forest management adopted by the forest services, most probably the choice of reforestation species.
The landscape of south-western Slovakia is characterised by anthropogenous reshaping, while fragments of undisturbed, waterlogged habitats have been preserved in what remains of the meandering ancient Žitava River. These refuges are inhabited by various small mammal species and their blood-sucking ectoparasites. Between 2014 and 2018, research on them was carried out in Slovakia’s Danubian Lowland (Podunajská nížina) during three out of the four seasons (spring, summer and autumn). The small mammals were captured at 27 localities. The occurrence of nine flee species from the Hystrichopsyllidae, Ctenophthalmidae and Ceratophyllidae families was documented on 12 small burrowing mammals. During the course of all the seasons in which research was conducted, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, C. assimilis, Megabothris turbidus a Nosopsyllus fasciatus were found, among the most dominant species to be seen on small burrowing mammals.
This article discusses the knowledge of indigenous people about forest care, interconnectivity and maintenance of their ecological resources as well as the challenges they face among the Matigsalug-Manobo people of Marilog District, Davao City, Philippines. The researchers utilized a descriptive research design through qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions and photo-video documentation. To extract the data, the necessary permits and ethical compliance were provided by the respective parties of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources Region 11, the Local Government Unit of Marilog District and the Manobo-Matigsalug Tribal Council Incorporated. The data gathered were analyzed through thematic analysis focusing on the dominant themes from the respondents’ narratives. The results revealed that these people’s indigenous knowledge on biodiversity conservation has been challenged by changes in the natural landscape, forest deterioration and the unintended consequences of these such as cultural loss and economic well-being. Thus, this has led to major implications of how they conserve the forest and manage their ecological resources in the current times. This calls for building a sustainable and inclusive economic livelihood for the indigenous group and other stakeholders in the Marilog district. This is a vital step in order not to compromise their economic livelihood, to retain cultural practices and to maintain their rights to manage and sustain their ecological resources. Overall, the Matigsalug-Manobos are actively negotiating the cause and effects of these socio-economic factors and are able to devise ways to use the forest and its ecological resources for their survival.
An ecosystem engineer is a species that indirectly changes the availability of resources for other organisms via physical modification of the habitat. A good example of such species is Ardea cinerea L. – a big waterbird that forms colonies up to a few hundreds of nests during the breeding season. The colonies modify the habitat in the close vicinity of the nests mainly through heavy input of organic matter (feces, dropped or regurgitated food leftovers, eggshells, dead birds, etc.), which in turn affects vegetation. In our previous study, we observed that the probability of occurrence of non-forest species under the nests was 29.5 times higher in control plots in two types of forest vegetation (oligotrophic pine forest and riparian mixed forest). Adaptation for long-distance dispersal turned out to be insignificant for the probability of species occurrence, which suggested that the diaspores of those species must have been present in the forest soil before the establishment of the grey heron colony. In the present study, we used the seedling emergence method to compare the structure of the soil seed bank in breeding sites and control plots in two forest ecosystems mentioned above. We also tested whether the increased amount of nitrates in soil had a positive effect on the rate of germination and growth of seedlings. The results have shown that some reservoir of ruderal species was indeed present in the control plots, although their amount was higher under the heronries. We have proved that the number of germinating seeds of ruderal species depends on the concentration of nitrate in the soil of the pine forest. Comparison of the dry weight of 30- and 60-day-old seedlings of Rumex acetosella (pine forest) and Betula pendula (riparian forest) from the control and breeding sites showed an increased size of seedlings coming from the breeding sites of both forest communities.
Biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystem functioning. This is the most frequent pattern in the field of ecosystem functioning, which has been evaluated generally at the community scale. However, most management decisions are made at the landscape scale, which requires the need to confirm these relationships at this level. In the study, we analyzed the relationship between temporal variability of ecosystem functioning and two landscape diversity indices (Shannon and Pielou). We used snow water equivalent and soil moisture content as the indicators of functioning, which are closely related to the runoff formation function. The field data were collected in a small plain basin of the Kasmala river during the period from 2011 to 2017. Within four spatial scales, we have not identified significant linear relationships between the indicators of functioning and diversity indices. These results indicated the strong influence on the total variability by variation in the most widespread ecosystem types (also called idiosyncratic response). It is one of the consequences of landscape structure homogenization within the study area.
Soil carbon sequestration plays an important role in mitigating the anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Pastures and meadows are the significant localities for the deposition of soil organic carbon (SOC). The objective was the comparison of the impact of plant species and their quality on the deposition of SOC under the grasslands in 18 variants of meadows and pastures at the original unfertilized soils, the overfertilized soils by organic fertilizers in the form of excrements and the soils after the ecological regeneration by regrassing. The plots 5, 8, 9 and 10 were used on a long-term basis as old semi-natural sheep pastures from the 15 century. We took into consideration the deposits of SOC and Nt in soil. The old semi-natural pasture proved the most intensive transformation and accumulation of SOC (even 5.60%) and the highest values were measured in the depth I (0–100 mm) soil layer, the concentrations decreased along with the depth in all treatments. At these plots, there was the lowest yield of dry matter and quality (EGQ). The yield of dry matter in t.ha−1, the number of species, EGQ and C:N in the depth I with the significant impact on the species variability, which were selected by Monte-Carlo permutation test explain up to 47% of the total variability. According to the result of “forward selection” in RDA analysis, out of all significant factors, the number of species has the biggest impact on the total species variability, which represents 17% of the total variability. The total evaluation indicates that from the agricultural aspect of utilization, a more favourable quite high content of SOC was deposited at the ecologically regenerated grasslands by the additional sowing of the valuable autochthonous plant species.
This article explores the interactions between industrial development and environmental protection dimensions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In consideration of the suitability and data availability, this article uses the SDG indicators 9.2.1 (manufacturing value-added per capita) and 12.4.1 (E-waste per capita) as the two indicators to reflect industrial development and environmental protection under the SDGs framework. Based on a cross-country data source, this article examines the correlation between manufacturing value-added per capita and E-waste per capita in forty countries across four income levels as defined by the World Bank. The results show that the manufacturing value-added per capita and E-waste per capita increase with the countries’ income levels. In addition, the positive correlation between manufacturing value-added per capita and electronic waste (E-waste_ per capita) becomes weaker with the increase of the countries’ income levels, and for high-income countries the correlation turns negative. This provides evidence to partially support the Environmental Kuznets Curve, which demonstrates the ‘inverted-U shape’ relationship between economic development and environmental protection. It also generates a number of implications on the monitoring and management of SDG indicators. In consideration of the interactions between different SDGs (including targets and indicators), a holistic, multi-disciplinary, and cross-departmental management and monitoring of SDG indicators is recommended.