This work presents the results of research on the identification of types of Polish agriculture. Polish gminas (the third-order administrative division of the country sometimes referred to as “communes” or “municipalities”, until 2016 – according to Local Administrative Units – LAU level 2) have been divided into three types, characterised by low, medium or high levels of agricultural development, with 10 sub-types. A multi-stage typological procedure was used, employing two classification methods: k-mean cluster analysis and the random forest method. Twelve diagnostic attributes were used that comprehensively characterise Polish agriculture. The results show the diversity of this sector of the economy, which should be taken into account when planning its future development.
The article draws on research covering all local action groups (LAGs) operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship. The objectives include: determining what portion of local development activities implemented by LAGs are activities for social inclusion and what their expected effects are; and determining whether LAG activities for social inclusion are adequate to the scale of social exclusion in the areas where they operate. The research demonstrates that actions against social exclusion were provided for in the strategies of 26 out of 28 LAGs and they were usually not central, but only one of several categories of planned projects. The research also revealed that in the voivodship there is no relationship between the level of threat of social exclusion in the areas where LAGs operate and the level of social inclusiveness of their strategies. It is suggested that the scale and effects of the social inclusion projects planned by LAGs are not adequate to the problems actually occurring in the areas covered by their activity.
One of the ways to ensure the sustainable development of settlements is to improve comfort of living in urban areas. The formation of a developed landscaping system is one of the priorities of modern city development and provides an opportunity to realise the main functions of green areas of public use – ecological, historical, cultural, urban and social. Sufficiency or insufficiency of green areas is determined by indicators both objective (the level or area of landscaping per person), and subjective (the feeling of green space and comfort of urban areas). This study addresses both of these aspects. Significant differences in the findings of sociological surveys conducted earlier were also analysed. Residents of the city of Kyiv completed a questionnaire, which evaluated not only the existing greening system of the city, but also the perceived priority directions for its improvement. Four main criteria for assessing the quality of landscaping elements are proposed – environmental friendliness, contact, accessibility and attractiveness.
Globally, policymakers often describe informal settlements and slums in terms of health problems. In this paper we trace the way housing and planning have been linked to health concerns in the history of South Africa and we assess post-apartheid literature on the topic. We note that researchers continue to rely on a biomedical understanding of the relationship between housing, planning and health although, we argue, the links between them are tenuous. We propose the capabilities approach as a way to understand this relationship. Reframing the relationship between housing, planning and health within the capabilities approach may improve the current understanding of this link.
This paper discusses the historical links between housing, planning and health in South Africa, assesses post-apartheid policy, and reviews post-apartheid literature on the relationship between housing, planning and health.
Results and conclusions
We find it is assumed that the link between housing, planning and health is a biomedical concern and not a social concern. We argue that scholars thinking about this relationship should consider the opportunities embedded in the capabilities approach to understand health outside the biomedical frame.
Regional identity is a significant element of contemporary scientific discourse. It is justified in the era of progressing globalisation, which, by unifying traditional cultural patterns, forces regional communities to redefine their traditional values. Today, the Silesian identity is subject to such transformations. The distinctiveness thereof was shaped by many political, social and economic factors. Contemporarily, globalisation is a factor in socio-cultural transformations. The essence of the study of Silesian identity in the face of globalisation is to indicate the most important changes thereof reflected in the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice. The research goal is to analyse changes in the perception of globalisation and modern attitudes towards Silesian values (work and family).
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the key economic and geographical characteristics of the investment development of Belarus and how these characteristics could evolve in the future. The evaluation of the investment development of Belarus is based on comparative economic analysis, spatial analysis research methods and the cartographic method. Our results indicate a stable, predictable and enabling investment policy as the main determinant for attracting investment. This is confirmed by changes in the spatial distribution of foreign investment inflows in the real economy of Belarus by countries for 2010 and 2018. The characteristics of Belarusian investment development are identified because of the need to intensify innovative performance in the strategic dimensions of sustainable development. Particular attention is paid to the development of special economic zones with preferential regimes in the Republic of Belarus. This paper provides important new insights into the future prospects for Belarusian investment development on the basis of identified specifics.
The main purpose of the research is to address the real, operational context of participatory budgeting. It is argued that this method of budgeting might be a useful tool for developing various ideas at a local level, including social/spatial justice, civil society, human capital, information society, or sustainable development. However, the implementation of participatory budgeting might, conversely, result from development processes. A combination of quantitative methods (principal component analysis and regression analysis) was applied to define the real motives for local authorities to employ participatory budgeting. To address the research questions mentioned in the paper, all rural communes employing participatory budgeting in Poland in 2017 were investigated. It was confirmed that participatory budgeting is an effect of development processes rather than a tool for achieving development goals. Interestingly, social/spatial injustice might significantly stimulate inhabitants’ engagement in participatory budgeting. On the other hand, the development of information society supports processes related to social involvement, including participatory budgeting.
Tourism studies, including by geographers, give only minor attention to historically-informed research. This article contributes to the limited scholarship on tourism development in South Africa occurring during the turbulent years of apartheid (1948 to 1994). It examines the building of racialized landscapes of tourism with separate (but unequal) facilities for ‘non-Whites’ as compared to Whites. The methodological approach is archival research. Applying a range of archival sources tourism linked to the expanded mobilities of South Africa's ‘non-White’ communities, namely of African, Coloureds (mixed race) and Asians (Indians) is investigated. Under apartheid the growth of ‘non-White’ tourism generated several policy challenges in relation to national government's commitments towards racial segregation. Arguably, the segregated tourism spaces created for ‘non-Whites’ under apartheid exhibit certain parallels with those that emerged in the USA during the Jim Crow era.
The article substantiates the need to carry out a research of the factors affecting the change in the exchange rate of EUR/UAH due to the fact that the devaluation of the Ukrainian hryvnia in the last few years destabilizes the economic environment of entrepreneurship development. Thus, this work analyzes the determinants of the exchange rate in Ukraine, and the investigated correlation between the dependence of the EUR / UAH exchange rate on a set of factors confirmed the tight correlation between the change in money supply and government debt and the rise / fall in the EUR / UAH national currency. Instead, other factors (GDP, budget deficit, export operations, the positive balance of payments, inflation, public debt) have statistically insignificant correlation to the studied indicator and are not included in the regression model. It is suggested to harmonize monetary policy that has the greatest influence on the formation of the exchange rate, as well as to analyze the connection this policy with the foreign trade policy of the country, which will enable to stabilize the exchange rate as well as to ensure the formation of suitable conditions for the economic development of foreign economic entities.
This paper studies the protected cultural property strategic management conducted by UNESCO, the World Heritage Sites (WHS). Its purpose is to explore the measure to which the system of such cultural property management is developed, since its meaning goes beyond the touristic purpose and indicates the world’s cultural property. Two Croatian tourist destinations are examined – Dubrovnik and Poreč. At the end of the paper, a comparative analysis of the two investigated cases is presented with the aim of presenting the research results and designing a personal model and conceptual frame of action to create a more efficient management system for protected heritage at all levels