This paper presents a methodology based on the finite element method to simulate the flow of granular materials. Moreover, it allows proper estimation of dynamic pressure during silo discharge since this subject is still under discussion, especially for designing silos with an insert (an input element). A 2-D simulation of the discharge process of a cylindrical silo with cone and a central discharging orifice was performed. Two cases were studied, with and without using insert in silo. Numerical analysis was carried out with the help of the uncoupled arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) approach. The resulting dynamic pressure distribution on the silo wall for each of the two cases was inferred numerically. The resulting values of pressure were compared with the results of the experimental study on a cylindrical metal silo to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical model in determining the dynamic wall pressure, especially in the case of using an insert in silo during discharge.
The use of waste materials in civil engineering applications has gained importance nowadays. Consuming limited natural resources and increasing waste disposal costs have led researchers to evaluate waste materials for different geotechnical applications. In this respect, some waste materials are used as reinforcement in soils to improve their engineering properties. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the usability of waste polypropylene fiber as a reinforcement material in high plasticity fine-grained soils. For this purpose, waste toothbrush bristle (WTB) was used as a polypropylene fiber reinforcement material and added to fine-grained soil at ratios of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% by dry total weight. The effect of WTB on freezing–thawing behavior and unconfined compression strength of unreinforced and reinforced clayey soil was evaluated. The results indicated that addition of WTB to high plasticity clay improved its behavior against freezing–thawing. Also, undrained shear strength increases with respect to increment in WTB ratio.
The aim of this study is to consider the effects of the variation of shear modulus ratio (G/G0) and damping ratio (ξ) of soil, obtained by a linear iterative method based on the design spectra of seismic codes, the soil environment in terms of uncertainties in shear modulus using Monte Carlo simulations and the foundation damping (ξf) of flexible base for analyses of the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) problems. A squat structure with circular shallow foundation resting on a soil layer over a homogeneous half-space is studied by using cone model and considering seismic zone effect on structural response. Firstly, after showing the effects of the correction of G and ξ on impedance functions and the responses of soil-foundation-structure system, a study is carried out to compare these effects to those of the modelling of uncertainties in shear modulus as random variations. Secondly, a comparative analysis on design response spectra and base shear forces was carried out for four seismic codes (Algerian Seismic Rules RPA99-2003, Eurocode 8–2004, International Building Code IBC-2015 and Indian Code IS-1893-2002) considering the three cases of SSI: SSI effects (initial G and ξ), nonlinear SSI (corrected G and ξ) and stochastic SSI (random G with COV = 20%) compared to the fixed base case. Results show that the correction of G and ξ, according to the equivalent nonlinear method in all the cases, leads to a remarkable decrease in peak responses but show a huge amount of reduction in the second study for IBC-2015 and IS-1893-2002 codes compared to the other codes.
This article concerns the assessment of selected physical and mechanical properties of a dump soil. The dump soil is a specific soil with a very heterogeneous internal structure. Next to each other, there may be lumps and crumbs of cohesive soils mixed with non-cohesive soils accompanied by a very diverse admixture of organic substance. In addition, the soil in the waste dump, in spatial terms, may significantly differ in consistency and density. This is the result of the process of forming a dump soil, which takes place in three stages: excavation, transport and dumping. A heterogeneous soil deposited within the waste dump is subject to further processes: consolidation, compaction and creeping. Changes occurring in the course of these processes have a significant impact on the development of the properties of the dump soil.
Due to the large diversity of the tested soils, the results of their properties were divided into two groups, based on type and consistency of soil. This allows us to estimate the selected properties of the dump soil only on the basis of their macroscopic analysis.
In this study, firstly, the behavior of a high steel frame equipped with tuned mass damper (TMD) due to several seismic records is investigated considering the structural and seismic uncertainties. Then, machine learning methods including artificial neural networks (ANN), decision tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB) and support vector machines (SVM) are used to predict the behavior of the structure. Results showed that among the machine learning models, SVM with Gaussian kernel has better performance since it is capable of predicting the drift of stories and the failure probability with R2 value equal to 0.99. Furthermore, results of feature selection algorithms revealed that when using TMD in high steel structures, seismic uncertainties have greater influences on drift of stories in comparison with structural uncertainties. Findings of this study can be used in design and probabilistic analysis of high steel frames equipped with TMDs.
This paper identifies the threats and risks of a terrorist attack on a critical infrastructure facility based on the example of Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW). The threat analysis primarily took into account the threats of deliberate human actions. Identification of potential threats concerning the infrastructure surrounding the facility was conducted based on information that is readily available on the Internet. The reasons why it may be a potential target were also justified. Numerical calculations of the stress–deformation scale of the initial state of the reservoir, based on the Biot model with the Kelvin–Voight rheological skeleton, were presented as a starting point for in-depth research on the scale of threats and risks to the reservoir. The presented numerical model can be a starting point for calculating the stability of a reservoir subjected to explosives. The facility constitutes a major element of Lubińsko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). OUOW Żelazny Most is the biggest such facility in Europe and is utilized to collect tailing waist. When expanded in its southern quarter, the facility will be the biggest in the world.
Geogrids are widely used in civil engineering projects to reinforce road and railway structures. This paper presents research on the shearing strength of soil samples that have been reinforced with geogrids. The relationship between soil and geogrids is explored and evaluated by modeling the mechanical behavior of heterogeneous materials. For the purposes of this research, data obtained from tests of unreinforced sand samples with triaxial cells were compared with the data obtained from tests of reinforced sand samples. It was found that the shearing strength for reinforced samples was higher (from 9% to 49%) compared to unreinforced samples. Some damage to the geogrid was detected during the experiment, and for this reason, the same tests were numerically simulated for both unreinforced samples and samples reinforced with geogrids. Numerical simulations revealed the main reasons for damage to the geogrids during triaxial testing.
The constantly growing, broadly understood, construction industry requires the use of a large amount of aggregates. The construction of roads, motorways, railway lines and hydrotechnical structures requires the use of aggregates of high quality, which is primarily determined by mechanical properties. The basic parameters describing mechanical properties of aggregates are the Los Angeles (LA) fragmentation resistance coefficient and the Micro-Deval (MDE) abrasion resistance coefficient. The LA and MDE coefficients depend mainly on the type of rock and its physical and mechanical properties. This has been thoroughly researched and documented as evidenced by the abundant literature in the field. However, the correlation between LA and MDE coefficients still gives rise to extensive discussions and some concerns. A number of publications demonstrate dependencies for various types of aggregates. Therefore, research was undertaken to present statistical analysis for one type of aggregate and one geological area.
This article presents the results of the fragmentation resistance test in the Los Angeles drum and the abrasion resistance test in the Micro-Deval drum of aggregates from Carpathian sandstone deposits. Aggregate samples were divided into three groups according to the location of the deposits and the tectonic unit from which they originated. The obtained results were subjected to static analysis to fit the best mathematical function describing the relationship between the two parameters.
The issue of the stratification of the underground subsoil is one of the principal geotechnical challenges. The development of the Cone Penetration Tests (CPTu) has resulted in the possibility to record parameters in a quasi-continuous way, which provides a very detailed description of the soil response. Such accurate measurements may therefore be treated as a signal or image and be analysed as such. This paper presents the application of high-pass spatial filters to perform soil stratification on the basis of the static penetration test. The presented algorithm has been tested on the test data set provided by the Organizers of TC304 Student Contest on Spatial Data Analysis (September 22, 2019, Hannover, Germany). It provides reasonable results at negligible computational cost and is applicable to most soils, especially if the contrast between the parameters of the adjacent layers is significant.