The study integrates geophysical and geotechnical methods for subsoil evaluation and shallow foundation design. The study involved six vertical electrical sounding and geotechnical investigation involving cone penetration test and laboratory soil analysis. Three major geologic units were delineated; the topsoil, weathered layer and partly weathered/fractured/fresh bedrock. The overburden thickness is in between 15.2–32.9 m. Based on resistivity (16–890 ohm-m) and thickness (12.7–32 m) the weathered layer is competent to distribute structural load to underlying soil/rock. The groundwater level varies from 4.5 to 12.3 m. Therefore an average allowable bearing capacity of 200 kPa is recommended and would be appropriate for design of shallow foundation in the area, at a depth not less than 1.0 m with an expected settlement ranging from 9.03–48.20 mm. The ultimate bearing and allowable bearing capacity for depth levels of 1–3 m vary from 1403–2666 kPa and 468–889 kPa for strip footing while square footing varies in between 1956–3489 kPa and 652–1163 kPa respectively.
The article presents an original optical system to measure displacements across joints or cracks in building structures. It describes the concept of system operation, algorithms to be followed and results of practical tests that have been performed.
The proposed solution is based on digital photos taken with a non-metric digital camera, modified by defining its internal orientation elements and correction of lens distortion during calibration, constituting the measurement instrument registering the pictures of markers. QR (Quick Response) codes are proposed to be the markers. Being digitally processed, a set of registered images allow visualising the measured size of occurred displacements.
Owing to this solution, it is possible to obtain data on a mutual position of two or more QR codes in the form of translation elements in 3D space and appropriate three orientation angles. Appointed elements are unequivocal in spatial interpretation and not limited by dimension.
As the tests performed by the authors show, the results are more than satisfactory. The proposed measurement technology is an objective system of data acquisition, suitable for automating the whole monitoring process of displacements of building structure elements concerning joints and cracks.
In this article, we have investigated a fitting proposal model for calculating the crystallite size of pure NiO thin films by varying the structural parameters, such as full width at half-maximum β, lattice parameter a and differences in a − a0. The experimental data of NiO thin films were prepared at several deposition temperatures in the range of 380–460°C. All estimated values of crystallite sizes are proportional to the experimental data. Thus, the measurement of the crystallite size values by this proposed model is compatible with practical measurements qualitative.
Ureje Dam, Ado-Ekiti has witnessed drastic reduction in the water storage capacity of its reservoir. It became imperative to determine the possible cause(s) of the reduction in storage capacity. Geophysical investigation involving the vertical electrical sounding technique of the electrical resistivity method was conducted in the upstream part of the dam. Five lithologic units that include the mud/suspended materials, such as sandy clay, clay, weathered/fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock, were delineated. The respective resistivity and thickness range of the units are 2–19 ohm-m; 147–206 ohm-m, 2–38 ohm-m; 47–236 ohm-m and 455–1516 ohm-m and 0.4–1.9 m; 0.5–2.5 m; 1.0–12.2 m; 7.3–16.4 m and ∞. The thickness of suspended materials, resistivity/thickness of weathered layer and the presence of near-surface impervious layer were used as the main indices for the spatial demarcation of the dam axis in terms of vulnerability to loss of impounded water. Using the cumulative response of the indices, the study concluded that the eastern to southeastern parts of the dam axis showed the highest indications of vulnerability to loss of impounded water.
The article presents the grain size distribution of soil samples from the Precambrian basement within the purview of the textural properties, deduced transportation history and the numerical assessments using statistical parameters. The fourteen soil samples collected from the study area were subjected to sieve analysis in the laboratory for the determination of their grain size distribution. The statistical parameters’ study includes the graphic mean, skewness, sorting and kurtosis. The result of the analysis of the soil samples ranged from coarse to fine-grained samples, moderately and poorly sorted, positively and negatively skewed and the kurtosis also shows leptokurtic as the most dominant which suggests the samples poorly distributed and moderately sorted at the centre of the grain size distribution. These results also suggest the geological environment of the soil samples could be responsible for the poorly and moderately sorted exhibited by the samples deposited in the location.
Lithium additions to Al offer the promise of substantially reducing the weight of alloys, since each 1 wt. % Li added to Al reduces density by 3 % and increases elastic modulus. In the present work, the effect of 1.46 wt. % Li addition to AlSi7Mg (containing 7.05 wt. % Si and 0.35 wt. % Mg) was studied. The alloy showed reduced density and higher hardness after natural ageing. Experimental work showed that micro-structural and mechanical properties changed with Li addition. It was observed that 0.80 wt. % Li addition resulted in formation of new phase AlLiSi which has a great effect to increase hardness of AlSi7Mg. According to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis it was confirmed that the addition of Li causes formation of different phases which are: α-Al, β-Si and AlLiSi.
In this paper, research on the possibilities of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) separation from other substances in the filter ash sample is presented. The research material contains six components that differ in chemical composition and density. The possibilities of Na2SO4 separation using dry and wet methods were studied. The dry method was based on separation with a centrifugal air classifier at four cut size limits. The wet method was based on the dissolution of water-soluble components, filtration of insoluble components, and drying the products. The sulphur content of the individual products was determined using both methods. The aim of the research was to determine which method is more suitable for separation of the material in a way that most of the material would contain as little sulphur as possible and the rest of the material would contain concentrated sulphur. The wet method proved to be more successful. The product with mass fraction 33.1% of the total mass, obtained from the aqueous solution, contained 8.39% sulphur after filtration and drying. The water-insoluble component, with mass fraction 66.9% of the total mass, contained 0.56% sulphur. The dry method with the centrifugal air classifier proved to be less successful in comparison with the wet method. The particles containing Na2SO4 are very similar in size and density to the other components of the material, so the separation to the desired extent was not achieved.
Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.
Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.
Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.
The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.
A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.