The paper presents results of the measurements of the tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration and meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, speed and wind direction. The data were collected from January 2016 to December 2016 at station located in locality Centre (Banja Luka), Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants to plants and health and highly reactive secondary pollutant. The present study covers investigation of the relationship between the concentration of ozone and meteorological parameters as well as time variations of ozone concentration (by hours, months, seasons). This topic has not been studied up to now in this region, although the recent research data indicates that there is a correlation between them and previously obtained from the world’s relevant scientific centres, as already cited above. Statistical analysis confirms string of rolls, which shows directional connection between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters, specially temperature (r = 0.148), air pressure (r = –0.292) and relative humidity (r = –0.292). These parameters are the most important meteorological factors influencing the variation in ozone levels during the research. The correlation ozone concentrations with speed and direction of wind is not significant, like other parameters.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of electromagnetic fields and their shielding on the growth of dwarf runner bean Phaseolus coccineus L. Three sectors were separated on the device emitting electromagnetic fields: “E” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation with the predominance of the electrical component, “EM” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components and “M” - sector with a predominance of magnetic component. Fields generated by the device were also shielded with ADR TEX, a screen based on a nanocomposite in which the electric component of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by water dispersed within a dielectric matrix in various ways. The composites exhibit high dielectric absorption and shield electric fields within the frequency range from ~100 mHz to ~100 kHz. Electromagnetic fields with the predominance of the electrical component and without domination of its components delayed the initial emergence of runner bean seedlings. Shielding of electromagnetic field without domination of its components with ADR TEX screen protected against this negative impact on the emergence rate of young runner bean seedlings. Exposure of plants to differentiated electromagnetic fields adversely affected their growth. Plants exposed to electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components had the lowest height and the shortest internodes. Shielding of electromagnetic fields with ADR TEX screen efficiently protected against their negative impact on the plant growth. Electromagnetic fields and their shielding did not influence the size of leaves and the index leaf greenness (SPAD).
In the recent years photovoltaic (PV) industry has experienced a major growth, caused by the ever present annual decrease in module production prices and the expanding awareness of the general public in terms of renewable energy. There are numerous ways to implement PV modules as an additional energy source for a building, be it mounted on the rooftop, or building integrated (BIPV). An analysis of BIPV consisting of 8 modules with the power of 250 Wp each was carried out for the building of the Chemistry Faculty of Gdansk University of Technology (GUT). It included monthly irradiance and energy generation values and compared them to data obtained by the means of PV-GIS system, after inserting site specific coordinates. Additional research on the same type of a single module with the power of 270 Wp was conducted to provide more insight in this matter. A comprehensible analysis allows for defining a final conclusion for the decrease in energy yield for GUT BIPV installation. Data outputs are lower than expected based on PV-GIS values, as for the most time the facade mounted PV system experiences partial soft shading from the nearby park. Furthermore, it is not located directly facing south, but rather south-east which does not prompt ideal working conditions.
Climate changes as well as the urbanisation and economic development influence the characteristics of the stormwater runoff in the cities. The sealing of drainage basin surface leads to an increase of the runoff intensity, thereby decreasing the rainwater infiltration. This situation can lead to the risk of flooding in urban areas. Therefore, especially in great cities there is a need for application of such solutions that will support the operation of the sewage systems. The examples of such solutions are, among others, the green roofs. The paper presents the results of investigation of the water retention capacity of 4 green roof models containing following growing media: (1) the typical green roof substrate without any amendments, (2) the substrate with addition of about 1 % by weight of hydrogel (the cross-linked potassium polyacrylate), (3) the substrate containing about 0.25 % by weight of hydrogel, (4) the substrate with addition of expanded clay and perlite. The models were not vegetated in order to investigate only the water retention capacity of drainage elements and substrates. The water retention capacity of green roof models was investigated in the laboratory conditions with use of artificial precipitations simulated after diverse antecedent dry weather periods (ADWP) amounting to: 1, 2, 5, 7, and 12 days. The intensities of artificial precipitations were relatively high and ranged from 1.14 to 1.27 mm/min, whereas their durations ranged from 7.75 to 12.56 min. These values of intensities and durations corresponded to the design rainfall intensities calculated using Blaszczyk’s equation for annual rain depth equal to 600 mm and the return periods ranged from 5 to 15 years. The obtained results indicate that the water retention capacity of green roof models, expressed as the volumes (or depths) of rainwater retained within their structures, increases with an increase of ADWP. Results indicate that the relation between ADWP and the amount of water retained in the layers of green roofs in the case of relatively short antecedent dry weather periods provided for the analysis (from 1 to 7 days) may be approximately linear. The results of the one-way ANOVA indicate that in the case of all models there is a statistically significant difference between the values of retention depth for specified ADWP (p < 0.001). During more than half of simulated precipitations, especially in the case of longer ADWPs lasting 5, 7, and 12 days the best water retention capacity had Model 3, with substrate containing about 0.25 % by weight of hydrogel. On the other hand, the results show that the weakest retention capacity had Model 2 (with substrate containing 1 % by weight of hydrogel). In the case of longer ADWPs (lasting 7 and 12 days) relatively weak water retention capacity had Model 4 (with substrate containing the addition of expanded clay and perlite). It can be concluded that too large amount of hydrogel added to the substrate can have an unfavourable impact on the water retention capacity of green roofs.
The paper presents the results of modelling airflow for ventilation of a single-family house with an area of 180 m2. The building was equipped with mechanical ventilation with the possibility of varying the airflow. The airflow was calculated as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. The presence of people in selected rooms was an internal source of carbon dioxide. In order to properly design of a ventilation system and then model the contamination level, ContamW software was used. The year-long cost analysis was carried out for the installation working with variable airflow (day, night). The analysis took into account the price of the electricity used by the fans of Air Handling Unit and meteorological data to estimate the power input to the heater of the Unit. Different scenarios of system operation were included as an input data in order to find a difference in energy consumption. The calculations were to answer the question of whether it is necessary to apply expensive and advanced system that enables individual control of the airflow in every room or use the simple control of the central unit to vary the airflow in the ventilation system of single-family houses. The difference in operating cost between the system that maintains 800 and 600 ppm reaches 100 % and demonstrates the need of simple demand controlled ventilation system.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, waste biomass originated from beer fermentation industry, was used to remove metal ions from four copper-containing synthetic effluents: Cu-Fe, Cu-Fe-Ni, Cu-Fe-Zn, and Cu-Fe-Ni-Zn. The characterization of the biomass surface was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The adsorption behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for copper, iron, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution was studied as a function of pH, initial copper concentration, equilibrium time, and temperature. Langmiur, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equilibrium models have been assessed to describe the experimental sorption equilibrium profile, while pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe experimental kinetics data. Maximum sorption capacities have been calculated by means of Langmuir equilibrium model and mean free sorption energies through the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. Thermodynamic analysis results showed that the adsorption of copper, iron and zinc was spontaneous and endothermic in nature, while of nickel exothermic. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be successfully applied for complex wastewater treatment.
The biogas produced in municipal wastewater-treatment plants (WWTP) should be cleaned before it can be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. Efficient running of such engines is possible only subject to using high quality biogas and lubricating oil. Otherwise, biogas impurities in course of complex chemical reactions may form deposits on various engine parts as well as seriously contaminate the lubricating oil. In this paper, mineral deposits containing high concentration of bismuth, silicon, sulphur, calcium and zinc are studied. Silicon deposits demonstrating strong friction properties are formed during combustion of volatile silica compounds. As these deposits build up, abrasion problems, ignition failure and even engine failure result. The bismuth containing deposits comes from bearings degradation, zinc and calcium were derived from the additives present in commercially available lubricating oil, while lead, aluminium, copper, nickel, iron and chromium were introduced by engine wear phenomena. The highest bismuth content was located at the engine cylinder heads and the lowest at the exhaust elements, whereas highest calcium content was registered on the pistons. Silicon containing deposits are highest in the exhaust and lowest at the engine head. Zinc deposits are highest at the piston.
Estimating the interception of radiation is the first and crucial step for the prediction of production for intercropping systems. Determining the relative importance of radiation interception models to the specific outputs could assist in developing suitable model structures, which fit to the theory of light interception and promote model improvements. Assuming an intercropping system with a taller and a shorter crop, a variance-based global sensitivity analysis (EFAST) was applied to three radiation interception models (M1, M2 and M3). The sensitivity indices including main (Si) and total effects (STi) of the fraction of intercepted radiation by the taller (ftaller), the shorter (fshorter) and both intercrops together (fall) were quantified with different perturbations of the geometric arrangement of the crops (10-60 %). We found both ftaller and fshorter in M1 are most sensitive to the leaf area index of the taller crop (LAItaller). In M2, based on the main effects, the leaf area index of the shorter crop (LAIshorter) replaces LAItaller and becomes the most sensitive parameter for fshorter when the perturbations of widths of taller and shorter crops (Wtaller and Wshorter) become 40 % and larger. Furthermore, in M3, ftaller is most sensitive to LAItaller while fshorter is most sensitive to LAIshorter before the perturbations of geometry parameters becoming larger than 50 %. Meanwhile, LAItaller, LAIshorter, and Ktaller are the three most sensitive parameters for fall in all three models. From the results we conclude that M3 is the most plausible radiation interception model among the three models.
The paper examines single- and multicomponent adsorption onto granular activated carbon. The quantities adsorbed in the study were determined using HPLC with UV detection. The experimental data were analysed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Sips adsorption isotherms. With a single component being adsorbed, high coefficients of determination and low mean square errors indicated that the Sips isotherm fitted the adsorption equilibrium well. Further experiments were carried out using aqueous solutions containing two or three adsorbed components in different proportions. For these solutions, the literature methods of predicting multicomponent equilibrium using single-component data did not yield positive results. Assuming that in the investigated range of concentrations no competitive adsorption occurred, the authors propose a method for calculating the equilibrium concentrations in the liquid phase using the equations obtained for individual components. The results achieved correspond very well to the experimental data.