The concept of family business in Nigeria has become significantly attractive; its root is in sole proprietorship form of business. Family businesses have the unique strength to separate culture, language and personality. The research analyses the effect of interpersonal relationship on internationalisation and determines the extent to which succession planning affects internationalisation. Research presents that a positive relationship exists between internationalisation and interpersonal relationship. It has also been discovered that no positive relationship exists between succession planning and internationalisation. This study therefore concludes that family businesses which proceed to internationalisation enjoy growth in productivity, adequate brand awareness in the world, diversification of political and financial risks, as well as experience an increase in the share of the market, capital base, asset and open up opportunities in regional markets for workers. The study also recommends that employees in family businesses should communicate with each other effectively for a healthy relationship and managers should not make secret preparations for successors.
This paper examines the influencing factors of becoming informal investors in two groups of Central European countries: the innovation-driven (Estonia, Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia) and efficiency-driven economies (Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Romania), based on the GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) database from 2014. According to the results, in the studied innovation-driven economies of Central Europe the probability of becoming an informal investor is higher for those, who know other entrepreneurs, who are confident in their own entrepreneurial skills, who are in the higher percentile of the household income, who are older and male. The results also suggest that in the studied efficiency-driven economies of Central Europe the probability of becoming an informal investor is higher for those who are confident in the own entrepreneurial skills, who know other entrepreneurs, who are in the higher percentile of the household income, who are older and male. The probability is decreased, if somebody is employed full-time. The study emphasises similarities instead of differences regarding the analysed aspect between the two groups of countries.
This paper incorporates government immigration policy variables in a job search and match framework to examine its implication on labour market outcomes. The main assumption is that illegal workers can be penalized by receiving lower equilibrium wages or face possible deportation; and government can regulate illegal workers by introducing a “caught variable”, η, in the model. By a comparative statics analysis, the study has revealed that changes in the wages of illegal workers have both direct and indirect effect on wages of legal workers. Also, an important finding is that η has positive impact on most of the labour market parameters considered in the study.
Economic theory suggests that monetary policy can be used to stabilize an economy. However, the ability of monetary policy targets—interest rates and money supply—to stabilize an economy depends on their ability to achieve price stability. Using data from 1981 to 2018 and applying the vector error correction model, this paper seeks to determine how the changes in the inflation rate affect the ability of monetary policy tools to stabilize the Nigerian economy and stimulate investment. Empirical results suggest that the impact of the interest rates on investment depends on the level of the inflation rate. The size of the effect of interest rates on investment gets weaker as the inflation rate increases suggesting that monetary policy tools, such as the monetary policy rate (MPR), that directly change the interest rates are robust stabilization tools during periods of declining inflation rates but not relevant during periods of rising inflation rates. This is attributable to low bank lending rates. Additionally, the impact of the money supply target on investment does not depend on the level of the inflation rate. This suggests that monetary policy tools, such as open market operations, that directly change the money supply can be relevant stabilization tools during economic booms and recessions. As a result, the Central Bank of Nigeria should work to deepen the scale, capacity, and efficiency of its open market operations by ensuring that most of the people can participate with minimal transaction cost and by making different financial instruments available.
The paper deals with the management of product information in a cosmetics retail and information interaction of a retailer with distributors and manufacturers. We developed a list of requirements for the types of information for a product catalogue. Using a survey and questionnaire of employees of the retailer, we determined what information the departments needed. We made sure that one standard to the structure of information did not exist and proposed our own scheme. Based on the survey results, we created a list of requirements for the information management system and proposed a scheme of system components. We conducted a comparative analysis of the costs of the company (about 2000 employees) for the salary of employees involved in entering information before and after the implementation of our system. For evaluation of the effectiveness of the integration of the developed system, we defined the cost indicators: PP, NPV and IRR.
This paper forecasts the world population using the Autoregressive Integration Moving Average (ARIMA) for estimation and projection for short-range and long-term population sizes of the world, regions and sub-regions. The study provides evidence that growth and population explosion will continue in Sub-Saharan Africa, tending the need to aggressively promote pragmatic programmes that will balance population growth and sustainable economic growth in the region. The study argued that early projections took for granted the positive and negative implications of population growth on the social structure and offset the natural process, which might have implication(s) on survival rate. Given the obvious imbalance in population growth across continents and regions of the world, a more purposeful inter-regional and economic co-operation that supports and enhances population balancing and economic expansion among nations is highly recommended. In this regard, the United Nations should compel member states to vigorously and effectively implement domestic and international support programmes with this objective in view.
This article examines the relationship between money supply and financial innovation in the Maghreb countries over the period of 1980–2018 for a large annual data set on five Maghreb countries using the panel autoregressive distributed lag model (PANEL-ARDL). The results obtained from the cointegration technique of Pesaran and Shin (1999) confirm that a long-term relationship exists between M2 and its determinants: GDP, inflation, and the credit interest rate. Above all, the results of the research show that mobile money positively and significantly influences the money supply both in the strict sense and in the broad sense. Also, the number of ATMs positively but not significantly influences the supply of money in the broad sense. Failure to take into account the expansion of the number of ATMs can therefore lead to a poor specification of the money supply, and monetary authorities need to explicitly integrate the effect of financial innovation for effective policy action to stabilize economies.
The study investigates the effect of informal sector tax proceeds on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. The study adopted Ex-post facto design to obtain secondary data, covering 20 years (2000–2019) from the Lagos State Internal Revenue Service and the Ministry of Budget and Planning. All the series were tested for normalities to determine the appropriateness of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. The results of the study revealed that tax collected from the association, petty traders, and market men and women had a significant effect on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. It is evident from the monumental capital projects being executed by the government in the Metropolis. The study recommends that the government should not only create an enabling environment for the informal sector to thrive but also give all necessary support for its survival because the sector has contributed to the capital development of the Metropolis through tax revenue.
The paper aims at examining the causal relationship between economic growth and government expenditure in selected MENA countries over the period of 1987–2017. Unlike previous studies, we examine the causality in both panel data and time series data to get a clear idea about the causal relationships individually and as a full sample. We also revisited the causal relationship between the two variables within the framework of frequency domain causality. Our findings support the neutrality hypotheses in the short-run term for most of the countries. Thus, economic growth and government expenditure at most frequency levels evolve independently. On the other hand, we found the support of Wagner’s law, Keynes view, neutrality and bidirectional hypotheses in the long term.
We examine the impact of the macroeconomic determinants of foreign direct investment inflows. We also investigate the moderating role of sanctions in FDI inflows into Iran. The results reveal that macro determinants such as infrastructure, exchange rate, inflation rate, investment return, and governance have a long-run effect on FDI inflows in Iran. Our findings also show that GDP growth rate and trade openness have no significant effect on FDI. Our results indicate that sanctions do not have a significant moderating role in the relationship between macroeconomic factors and FDI. Surprisingly, international sanctions have a positive relationship with FDI inflows in Iran. Furthermore, sanctions have a positive impact on the inflation rate and exchange rate in Iran. Finally, our findings show that sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran’s economic growth in recent years due to increasing the severity level of sanctions.