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Abstract

Agri–food sector is one of the biggest and most supported economic sectors in the EU. It is a key sector for sustainable economic development and food safety and security. The EU Common Agricultural Policy (hereinafter CAP) is its backbone – it helps farmers with income support and market measures on the one hand and, on the other hand, it ensures sustainable rural development in individual EU countries. Despite of the huge support agricultural sectors in Member States are facing serious problems – in Slovakia it is especially the low level of domestic agricultural production, low quality of food products, high unemployment rate especially among young people, ageing of population and abandonment of rural areas. Looking for solutions for these problems mentioned there is a great challenge for relevant public authorities and for the academic sector, as well. Based on these facts the initiative to submit a project proposal has arisen within the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence – which would respond on challenges in this field. The project (Centre of Excellence for European Agri-Food Chain – CEEAG 611446-EPP-1-2019-1-SK-EPPJMO-CoE) has been granted and its main focus will start from important and irreplaceable role of agriculture and food industry in national economies of (not only) Member States via ensuring their food security under conditions given by the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) – one of the most supported policies in the EU.

Abstract

The paper aims to critically analyse the theory of environmental racism as a part of the concept of environmental justice in order to point out possible overuse of the term racism. Through theoretical analysis, the author tries to prove that labelling any negative impacts of the environmental burden on racial or ethnic minorities with racism is an unnecessary overwork which moreover might be, according to available data, inconsistent with reality.

Abstract

Arrangements for water resources or irrigation governance designs from the colonial era to the reform order always cause controversies and problems. In physiological issues, there is not known change in the meaning of water as a public good being a private good. Theoretical problems, the basis for the design of the theory of management of chaotic water resources is in line with the existence of Law No. 17 of 2019 concerning water resources. The purpose of this study is to analyze and find the implications of norm conflicts in water resources governance arrangements, both vertically between Law No. 17 of 2019 on Water Resources with Article 33 (2) and (3) with the 1945 NRI Law, and horizontally with RI Law Number 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles. This research uses normative legal research methods with various approaches, including the statute approach, historical approach and conceptual approach. The analytic part of this research is using an investigation strategy. The results showed that the article in Law No. 17 of 2019 proves that the production branches that are important for the State that control the public interest can not be controlled by the State, therefore the article in Law No. 17 Hold 2019 is contrary to Article 33 paragraph (2) and (3) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia cause that water is a State asset and national assets cannot be used so much for the prosperity of the people, therefore article 46 paragraph (1), Article 47, Article 48, Article 49, Article 51, Article 52 Law No.17 of 2019 is contrary to Article 33 paragraph (3) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

Abstract

The purpose of the discussion is an attempt to determine in what forms, which meet the criteria of local food systems (LFS), it is possible under Italian law to sell agri-food products by the farmer who is their producer. These forms imply a direct sale, or with the participation of at most one intermediary, to the final consumer, in close geographical distance between the place of production and sale. The analysis showed that Italian legislator, national and regional, provides for many instruments that are crucial in creating LFS, such as direct sales of agri-food products, farmers’ markets reserved only for the local farmers; the sale of meals consisting of the farmer’s products at the agritourism; wine routes; regional designation “products from zero kilometres”, emphasizing the geographical proximity between the place of manufacture and the place of sale; as well as a support for the social initiatives such as Solidarity Purchasing Groups.

Summary

The study assessed adoption of rice post-harvest technologies among smallholder farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents through a structured interview schedule using a multistage sampling procedure. Percentages, means, Chi-square and correlation were used to analyse the data and draw inferences. The results show that about 52.5% of the respondents had favourable perception, while 47.5% had unfavourable perception towards adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies. Rice milling (mean=4.54) and harvesting matured panicles at the right time (mean=4.47) ranked highest among the adopted post-harvest technologies, while majority (65%) of the respondents adopted the rice post-harvest technologies at moderate level and 35% had high level of adoption. Inadequate capital (mean=1.75) and poor extension contacts (mean=1.67) were the major constraints associated with the adoption. Also, there was significant association between sex (χ2= 38.174), marital status (χ2=32.85) and adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies, while age (r=-0.531), household size (r=0.414) and the quantity of rice produced (r=0.345) had significant relationship with adoption of the post-harvest rice technologies. There was moderate level of adoption among the farmers. Financial institutions, governments and non-governmental organisations should provide functional credit facilities and government should employ more extension agents to promote adoption of high-quality enhancing post-harvest technologies for sustainable rice production in Nigeria.

Summary

The beneficial effects of walnuts and walnut products on human health, due primarily to their rich polyphenolic content, have been appreciated as an empirical fact for centuries. The purpose of this study is to determine the polyphenolic contents of liqueurs made from the walnut selections ‘Rasna’ and ‘Sava’ and the walnut cultivar ‘Šampion’ (all harvested at three different times), as well as the polyphenolic contents of their green husks. The walnut liqueurs were prepared according to two traditional recipes using young walnut fruits. The highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the liqueur made from the ‘Rasna’ walnut selection (89.94%), whereas the highest contents of phenols (83.28 mg GAE/g FW), flavonoids (0.83 mg QE/g FW) and proanthocyanidins were found in the liqueur made from the ‘Šampion’ cultivar (14.75 mg CE/g FW). The youngest ‘Rasna’ walnuts, harvested at the first experimental time point, exhibited the highest phenolic and tannin contents, whereas the highest flavonoid content was observed in the ‘Šampion’ cultivar. The biochemical results obtained indicate a decrease in the polyphenolic content of walnut fruits with their growth and development. Moreover, the polyphenolic profiles of the walnut liqueurs considered were found to be greatly affected by the method of preparation and the cultivar/selection of walnuts.

Summary

Organic agriculture has the potential to reduce the negative impacts of conventional agricultural practices and enhance rural economic development. Since research on Sri Lankan farmers’ attitude towards organic agriculture has been rare, this research aims to explore the farmers’ viewpoint on organic agriculture. Two main rural districts were purposely selected for this investigation since these districts have a high potential for organic agriculture. Two Divisional Secretariat (DS) divisions from each district and 75 farmers from the farming community of each DS division were randomly selected to form a sample of 300 farmers. Data were collected from July 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The results revealed that a majority of the farmers (74%) were well-aware of organic agriculture and agricultural extension programs, while training was the primary information source in both districts. As per the mean analysis, the farmers had a positive attitude towards health-related and environmental protection aspects. However, they had a negative attitude towards the complexity of organic agriculture and unavailability of a suitable market for organic products. Results of the binary logistic regression revealed that the education level of the farmers significantly affect their attitude towards organic agriculture. The availability of traditional knowledge and technology relevant to organic agriculture, favorable climatic condition, and some government support were the main potentials, while labor intensiveness was the main challenge. Thus, creating better marketing facilities for organic products, providing the required amenities for producing organic food, processing, and value addition will promote organic agriculture among more farmers, supporting sustainable development.

Summary

Sugar beet leaf spot, caused by the air-borne fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., leads to a decrease in sugar beet leaf mass and the consequent regrowth of leaves based on exploiting the sugar reserves stored in the plant’s roots, thus ultimately resulting in lower yields and sugar contents of sugar beets. Azoxystrobin belongs to the group of QoI fungicides, which inhibit mitochondrial respiration by blocking cytochrome c reductase. The QoI fungicides are characterized by a very high risk of resistance interfering with their biological activity. For the purpose of testing the azoxystrobin sensitivity of the Cercospora beticola population found at the site of Rimski Šančevi, a collection of 84 isolates was assembled and tested for sensitivity to azoxystrobin by measuring the mycelial growth on fungicide-amended media with the addition of SHAM. The results obtained indicate that none of the isolates tested exhibited complete sensitivity to azoxystrobin, 4% were found to have reduced sensitivity, 26% were moderately resistant and 70% were highly resistant. A higher proportion of resistant isolates recorded is associated with the loss of azoxystrobin biological efficacy at the experimental site.

Summary

The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.