In the context of new coronavirus COVID-2019 infection spread, many students in numerous higher education institutions have undergone the transition to education applying distance learning technology while medical students undergo partially remote education. It is worth noting that in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote education is the best prevention measure for decrease in incidence of the new coronavirus infection among students.
Food and nutritional (in)security remain an important matter of concern, especially in developing countries. Despite the efforts to enhance food security among smallholder soybean households, the proportion of the undernourished population in Butere Sub-County still remains high for unknown reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of food security among smallholder soybean households in Butere Sub-County, Kenya. The study adopted the exploratory research design. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 201 respondents. Cross-sectional data were gathered through face-to-face interviews using pretested semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed using ordered logistic regression model. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure and categorize the soybean household food (in)security status. The results revealed that the household food (in)security status differed across soybean households and was greatly influenced by an interplay of socio-economic, market, and institutional factors. Age of the household head negatively influenced food security, whereas the level of soybean commercialization, education, livestock units, network density, extension visits, and credit access were positively associated with household food security. The study recommends policy interventions that seek to ensure intensive literacy development, frequent extension and training, improved access to credit, and reinvestment in productive assets or inputs for increased production, commercialization and food security. Strengthening of social ties and increased allocation to safety net programs for the aged, vulnerable, and resource-poor households are also recommended.
The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been the subject of a number of studies and has been described by many authors as a legume with low nitrogen fixing potential compared to other legume species. The first objective of this study is to assess the development and growth of P. vulgaris L. var. Djedida and its yield at different developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting), in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46) in an arid climate and in a soil containing high level of CaCO3 and assimilable phosphorus. The second objective is to carry out a survey on nodulation, number of spores and mycorrhizal infection under these conditions. The results showed that the nitrogen fertilizer amendment is mainly significant (p< 0.0001) for various morphological parameters. Indeed, great improvement was observed on the majority of the morphological parameters with considerable percentages. However, no significant effect was reported for the roots length. In addition, a negligible number of nodules were obtained in the plot without fertilization and no significant effect on the number of spores was recorded. Furthermore, the effect of fertilization on the arbuscular intensity (a%, A%) and on mycorrhizal colonization (M%, m%) of the roots was found to be significant. The soil in the arid region of Biskra showed significant mycorrhizogenic potential, although the conditions in this region were not very favorable for their development, which could constitute an effective biological resource to improve the tolerance of host plants to biotic and abiotic constraints.
The study assessed coping strategies adopted during economic recession by male and female members of rural households in Osun State, Nigeria. The study specifically examined the perceived causes of economic recession, investigated the perceived effects and identified the coping strategies adopted by the male and female members of the rural households during economic recession and their level of adoption. A multistage procedure was used to select 120 respondents from 6 local Government Areas of the State. An interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. The collected data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and independent T-test analysis. The mean ages of the male and female respondents were 45.2 ± 14.1 years and 37 ± 12.6 years respectively. The majority of the males (78.3%) and females (80%) were married with the mean household size of 7 ± 3 people for the male and 6 ± 2 for the female respondents. The cause of economic recession mostly perceived by the male and female respondents was poor economic planning (mean=3.87, 3.77), while prioritizing spending (mean=2.80, 2.52) was the most adopted strategy by both males and females. No significant difference was found in the effects of economic recession on the male and female respondents (t = -0.19; p >0.05) and likewise no significant difference was found in their economic recession coping strategies (t=0.115; p ≥ 0.05). The study concluded that there was no significant difference in the economic recession coping strategies between the male and female members of rural households in the study area.
The study assessed the gender involvement of sedentary Fulani in dairy farming practices in Osun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 256 respondents from 12 Local Government Areas (LGAs) inhabited by the sedentary Fulani in the study area. Interview schedules were used for quantitative data collection. Data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviations while one-way ANOVA was used to draw inferences on the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of the male and female respondents was 34.05 ± 12.49 years and 33.33 ± 13.14 years respectively. The majority of the male (85.9 %) and female (89.8 %) respondents had no formal education. The mean herd size of male and female respondents was 20 ± 2 and 5 ± 2 heads of cattle respectively. All of the male respondents indicated that fencing, grazing and milking were male gender roles, while all female respondents indicated that cleaning of pens, sales of milk/milk products and processing of milk were female gender roles. The study showed that 42.7% of the male and10.2% of the female respondents had high level of involvement in dairy farming activities, while 24.7% of the male and 44.2% of the female respondents had low level of involvement. Further results revealed that there were significant differences (F = 312.80) between the male and female respondents in their involvement in dairy farming practice. The study concluded that there is gender gap in male and female involvement in dairy farming practices.
The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic factors influencing the participation of households in the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme and estimate the programme’s impact on the poverty status of rural households in Edo and Ondo States, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select three hundred and twenty respondents across CBNRM participating and non-participating households. Data were collected according to socioeconomic criteria such as the expenditure on food and non-food items and the CBNRM participation status of the respondents surveyed. The endogenous switching regression model was used as an analytical tool. The following factors were found to exert significant influence on the participation of households in the CBNRM programme: year of schooling (p<0.05), membership in associations (p<0.05), value of disposable assets (p<0.1) and value of household’s food expenditure (p<0.05). A coefficient of correlation of 0.1625, obtained for the CBNRM participants, indicates that the CBNRM participants have higher per capita consumption expenditure than a random household by N1,369.17. The present study unequivocally demonstrated that participation in the CBNRM programme increased the per capita expenditure of the households considered, positively affecting their poverty status and emphasising the importance of education, household food expenditure, disposable assets and membership in association as determining factors for the CBNRM programme participation.
The article presents results of a concise analysis of domestic and foreign literature addressing the problem of determining of distinctive diagnostic features in patients with Clouston syndrome as an orphan disease rarely encountered in clinical practice of dentistry. A clinical case of effective orthopaedic rehabilitation of a 10-years-old patient with Clouston syndrome and congenital edentulism using minimally invasive orthopaedic dentistry measures: removable dentures application using shape memory materials is presented. Technological peculiarities and advantages of the chosen approach to treatment are described. Photographic documents of orthopaedic dental treatment results including long-term results within the follow-up period of 10 years are presented providing strong evidence of effective aesthetic, functional and social rehabilitation of the patient. Detailed analytical conclusion is drawn according to the study results.
The production of cheese as a value-added product occupies a prominent place in the food system of economically developed countries and is an important revenue generator for all participants in the production chain. The absence or insufficient application of the marketing concept reduces the possibility of efficient and effective utilization of available resources and hinders obtaining a competitive position of cheese producers in the market. The extent of marketing concept implementation in the business of cheese-producing agricultural holdings is a significant factor for their differentiation, development and growth. Empirical research was carried out using the survey method by creating a questionnaire for 78 holdings engaged in cheese production in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The Serbian cheese producers considered were surveyed about their business structure, production operations and strategic plans for the future. The objective of the research was to identify the place and role of the marketing concept in the business practice of registered agricultural holdings for cheese production in the Republic of Serbia. A lack of their awareness of the importance of marketing in business was found to be associated with a lack of their knowledge about the basic elements, essence and purpose of the marketing concept. Therefore, a major challenge for the agricultural sector is to encourage farmers to develop marketing skills. To be successful in the market, farmers need to have a better understanding of markets. It is necessary to educate small cheese producers about the importance of marketing in order to obtain a better market position and increase their profitability.