Air pollution in cities across the world is rising at an alarming rate. This rise in pollution has an adverse effect on people’s health leading to breathing difficulties, skin diseases and even cancer. The pollution in cities is mainly due to fossil fuel fired vehicles plying on the roads. Different polluting gases and particulate matter are discussed in the manuscript. Indian cities are no exception to this problem. With the general increase in population in the country, migration into cities has increased many folds. As a result, vehicular traffic on the roads has increased polluting the city atmosphere. This pollution has turned cities into heat islands. Two major cities of India, namely, Bengaluru and Delhi are considered in the manuscript for discussion. There are no simple ways of controlling this vehicular pollution and regulating the pollution. Strong policies have to be made and implemented. The way forward is pondered upon in the manuscript.
The flow of information is important in any area of human life. That’s why people try to develop applications to support the flow of information. But then it is also important to protect information, which means that not all employees have access to all information. In practice, this means above all a competitive advantage over other companies in the same sector. The purpose of the article is to define the positive and negative aspects of trade secrets from the customer’s point of view in passenger and freight rail transport. The main goal is to connect the information systems of individual infrastructure managers and carriers into the ERIC MOBILE application in compliance with the conditions of modularity.
The article deals with the issue of transport service of Leoš Janáček Airport in Ostrava utilizing public passenger transport. The topicality of the issue is the seasonal operation of the airport. The article aims to adapt the airport traffic service to passengers and airport staff. The number of connections will be dimensioned using the formula of transport services, which is based on the potential of transport services in the area. This methodology has been used on lines connecting residential areas but has never been used on lines connecting the city centre the airport.
Public passenger transport is presented as an opportunity to achieve future goals for establishing sustainable transportation systems. These systems are demanded from every member country of the EU for securing an ecologically friendly, fast, and reliable way of traveling in regions. Railway passenger transport is proven as a reliable and capable way of connecting regions. In many EÚ countries, railway transport has a certain gap, that could be improved without significant investments. In this study, we are focusing on negative consequences emerging from the cancelling operation of passenger transport on the chosen railway track. Most of the cancelations are affected by external influences. Individual car transport presents significant reasons with a noticeable impact on the potential of railway passenger transport in every region. On the railway line addressed in this article, passenger transport was cancelled in December 2019. This step was implemented for the constantly declining number of passengers. The object of the research is statistical dependence, characterized by the fact that the dependent variable is affected not only by independent variables but also by other unspecified variables and random effects. They are often called model faults or errors. This fact must be captured in a mathematical expression in a regression model. Based on this decision, it is necessary to seek answers to this situation using regression models that show the relationships between the number of passengers carried and the factors influencing their development. The main hypothesis is that the canceled of passenger transport was caused by low use by passengers. For example, with an increase/decrease in population, the number of passengers should increase/decrease the article verifies the dependences of the use of railway transport on the population of individual municipalities and on the development of fuel prices. Various dependencies (linear, polynomial, etc.) are used to test hypotheses. Testing of these dependencies will be performed using Fisher–Snedecor distribution. In the final part, the article also deals with the possibilities of using this line, as freight railway transport is no longer operated on this line. The research was carried out by a case study.
The article aims to explain how controlling influences an organisation as a whole, considering the job performance of employees and managers. It describes the development and verification of the Controlling Effectiveness Model, which characterises the impact, the place of each variable and the direction of each relationship in the effort to shape organisational performance. The hypothesis was verified with the help of empirical research, which was conducted with 264 organisations operating in Poland. The survey took place in October 2019. The authors of the article used the CAWI method. Efforts had been made to ensure a diversified research sample encompassing various organisational characteristics. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the sequentially mediated regression model were used to verify the hypothesis. The empirical research allowed confirming a statistically significant indirect impact of the quality of controlling on organisational performance. This relationship depends on the job performance of managers and employees. The analysis of the impact made by controlling on the job performance of employees and managers as we as the organisational performance resulted in a mediation model (the Controlling Effectiveness Model) and confirmed the effect of controlling on organisational performance through the impact on job performance of managers and employees. The article has practical implications. The organisations that decide to implement controlling should focus on the quality of this management support method. It is not enough to simply implement controlling as organisations need to ensure the correct implementation. In this context, it is also relevant to properly shape functional, organisational and instrumental controlling solutions (tailored to the characteristics of the organisation as a whole, as well as to the environmental conditions, under which the organisation operates), which determine the quality of controlling.
The research aimed to identify promising areas and outline problems associated with the transition of Ukrainian industrial enterprises towards advanced innovative development based on information and knowledge and to formulate recommendations for improving the knowledge management and commercialisation at these enterprises. The study used several methods for analysis, including a literature review; system, structural and statistical analyses; SWOT analysis; the inference method; and interpretation. The research efforts resulted in systemised major sources of knowledge in an enterprise and types of their utilisation. The performed analysis found the key ways to obtain and commercialise knowledge used by Ukrainian industrial enterprises. The results were compared with data of the EU countries. The analysis produced strengths and weaknesses of the existing knowledge management system used in Ukrainian enterprises. Strengths: growth in the number of enterprises producing new knowledge and implementing marketing and organisational innovations; intensified patent activity; and a rational structure of innovation-active enterprises by their size. Weaknesses: the new knowledge structure does not meet the needs of enterprises; an insignificant and unstable share of innovation-active enterprises in the total number of firms; and insignificant sales volumes of patents. The research revealed that Ukrainian enterprises had the potential ability to produce and commercialise new knowledge effectively and to use it as the basis to form, strengthen and implement relative competitive advantages, which would contribute to the innovative growth of the Ukrainian economy as a whole. Recommendations were designed for the formation of prerequisites necessary to improve the efficiency of knowledge management in the context of conditions required for the innovative development of domestic enterprises. The obtained results can be used as an information base for evaluating the system of knowledge production and commercialisation at Ukrainian enterprises to enhance the management and identify promising areas for innovative development.
Corporate activity diversification is a promising but at the same time risky condition of a company’s adaptation to the business environment. Effectiveness of diversification processes in enterprises may be achieved by research in the following areas: development of methods of internal and external business environment analysis as a basis for diversification decisions; understanding the dependence of the scope and nature of corporate activity diversification on the market situation; providing science-based advice for the management of diversified companies, especially large ones; improvement in the methods of diversification measuring so that a complex analysis of the diversification process would become implementable. Based on the study of the Lithuanian construction sector, this paper seeks to provide new insights into the following aspects of corporate activity diversification: preconditions and conditions for deciding on corporate activity diversification; the problem of the scale and nature of diversification; organisational management conditions for the success of diversification projects. Furthermore, an in-depth discussion of the problematic of measuring the achieved level of diversification is offered.
The European Union currently uses Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) as basic units for planning local development activities under its financial support. An important issue in terms of managing such areas is branding. FUAs are made of at least several territorial units (covering a dense urban area and a functionally related urbanised zone). Such composition poses a particular challenge in terms of developing a brand that covers all of the units. Therefore, it is essential to select the core around which the target image will be created. This publication aims to identify marketing and branding goals for the development of FUAs and determine activities facilitating the achievement of these goals by entities that manage the functional areas. The research method used in the article was a content analysis of documents outlined as Strategies for Integrated Territorial Investments developed for FUAs in Poland. The authors of the article undertook preliminary exploratory research. The obtained results show that most of the marketing and branding goals for the development of FUAs correspond with the objectives specific to city marketing and branding. Moreover, “integration” and “strengthening the metropolitan area function” were recognised as goals specific to FUAs.