The publication focuses on assessing the energy efficiency in residential and to some extent commercial applications. An energy audit is always the first step in addressing energy efficiency. The purpose of the publication is to present the benefits of using an energy audit. It explains a “do-it-yourself” procedure for an energy audit. The publication also focuses on calculating the potential energy saving by updating low-efficiency electric appliances with high-efficient alternatives. The environmental benefits of addressing the energy efficiency of households is also being discussed. An energy audit using a “do-it-yourself” procedure focuses on the economic, ecological and social impact to environment. The energy audit contributes to the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in our day by day life.
The publication presents the evaluation of the effectiveness of belt tensioning systems based on the results of model laboratory tests. The types of tensioning devices most commonly used in industry were selected for testing: winch, gravity, pneumatic and follower. The evaluation of the efficiency of belt tensioning devices is complex, as the tensioning system is not autonomous and is only part of the belt conveyor equipment. Therefore, the publication presents the impact of belt tension force on the durability of basic conveyor components such as the belt and its joints, and drums. The characteristics of the tested belt tensioning devices are presented and the construction and research capabilities of the laboratory model of the belt conveyor are described. Measuring systems mounted on the conveyor are described in detail, enabling recording of variable conveyor operating conditions, measuring belt speed, driving force and belt stress. The results of the research are the experimental static characteristics of the most commonly used tensioning devices, which show the relationship between the drive moment and the belt tensioning force. Obtained characteristics will allow the development of guidelines for the design and selection of the most effective belt tensioning devices.
The nature of gas-geodynamic phenomena is so complicated and unpredictable that it forces the necessity of continuous search for new principles of identifying the outburst threat and ongoing monitoring of this threat with view of current conditions in the mine. After the incidents in JSW S.A, the mines carrying out works in seams threatened with outbursts, upon their own initiative introduced additional rigours and increased the frequency of measurements and tests regardless of the existing legal requirements. Incidents that have taken place in KWK “Budryk” in recent years show how important is continuous verification of knowledge related to the forecasting of the outburst threat on the basis of ongoing observations of works. The local occurrence of a zone characterized by high methane-bearing capacity in the coal seam, even after taking preventive measures and introducing additional rigorous did not allow for the complete elimination of gas-geodynamic phenomena and avoidance of danger to employed people.
The methane hazard concerns a growing number of longwalls in the Polish coal mining industry each year. Mitigating this hazard, both of work safety and economic reasons requires the application of preventive measures adequate to its level. Commonly threat level is estimated based on registered methane concentrations, which fluctuate and highly depends on the place of measurement. The article presents studies on the average and maximum methane concentrations at the longwall outlet, including analyses of the interdependence of methane concentration in methanometry sensors installation locations.
Methane is one of the most dangerous gases occurring in mining production. Being inseparably connected with the rock mass, it presents a serious risk to occupational safety and reduces the effectiveness of mining production. A particularly high methane hazard occurs directly during exploitation in longwall headings and the drivage of roadways. Exceeding the maximum allowable level of its concentration in these headings makes it necessary to disconnect all machines until this concentration level is reduced. This leads to unscheduled downtimes of such machines, thus increasing the costs of their operation and decreasing their effectiveness. The paper demonstrates the results from the analysis of machine downtimes in the drivage of roadways, caused by excessive methane concentration levels. The analyses were based on the indications from the system for automatic monitoring of the ventilation parameters in this heading. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that exceeded values of methane concentration caused a series of unexpected downtimes in the drivage process. As a result, the process was disturbed and its effectiveness reduced. The presented analyses are one of the first to address the issue of how methane emissions affect machine downtimes. However, this phenomenon represents a major problem that needs to be addressed comprehensively in order to minimise the losses arising out of the necessary disruptions to the exploitation process.
The paper presents the concept of vibration measurement and reduction system for rails in hyperloop technology. It is based on the experience of measuring vibrations in high-speed rail, the first commercial magnetic rail, and vibration reduction systems for these rails. The authors outlined a conceptual vibration monitoring system based on the MQTT protocol and the vibration reduction method. The vibration reduction systems based on variable-characteristic silencers and solutions used in research centers, especially in CERNie and LIGO, were de-scribed.
Sustainability and eco-friendliness of the chain of supply is a subject of interest among many researchers. New eco-friendly solutions are being implemented in production, storage, and transportation of the entire chain of supply. This study focuses on pro-environmental solutions related to warehouse management. The publication describes a project of installing a solar photovoltaic (PV) system to generate electric power at the H&W Warehouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The purpose of this publication is to demonstrate the financial and environmental benefits of using sustainable forms of energy. The environmental benefits were calculated from the perspective of lowering the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. The financial benefits were determined by calculating the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) as well as regular and discounted payback. A computer simulation was being used as the research method. Calculations included in the publication have proven that the project being considered is beneficial from the financial and environmental perspectives.
The publication analyses and evaluates the impact of the implementation of circular economy on the economy and especially on its mining and power generation sector in Poland. Circular economy is a relatively new concept concerning an innovative economic development model. The publication briefly describes the concept of circular economy. Among other things, the basic economic processes that make up circular economy are discussed. In addition, history is presented as well as examples of legislation that have had the strongest impact on the implementation of circular economy in the EU are identified. Further on in the paper, the impact that circular economy will have on the mining and power generation industry in Poland is discussed. Areas have been identified that will need the most attention in relation to the implementation of circular economy. It was pointed out that in the mining and power generation sector the scale of use of current and landfill waste should be increased as a priority. Attention has been paid to the necessary reduction of water demand and rational water and sewage management. Examples of use of mining gas and ventilation air have been discussed. The publication provides examples of a number of measures taken in accordance with circular economy. It was pointed out that there is still a need to popularize the existing ones and to look for new technical and organizational solutions conducive to the introduction of this new economic model. An important aspect of the impact of the circular economy on these sectors will be the decrease in energy demand resulting from the widespread implementation of the new economic model. For those already struggling with a number of problems of some of the mining and power generation sectors based on coal mining and combustion in Poland, the implementation of circular economy will pose another challenge.
One of the basic methods of mechanical rock mining is cutting, which faces increasingly difficult working conditions. Despite the rapid development of machines used in underground and opencast mining as well as in tunnel building, construction industry and road engineering, the problem of insufficient durability of mining tools remains unsolved. In addition to drilling and, to a lesser extent, planing, cutting provides a huge market for tools. Currently, the process of cutting is mainly based on conical picks. The cutterheads of cutting machines are equipped with several dozen, and frequently – more than one hundred conical picks, which, due to their workability and abrasiveness, sometimes work only a few hours. There is a market demand for over two hundred models of conical picks. This is due to the huge variety of shapes and sizes of picks as well as the methods of their mounting in the holder. The article briefly presents various solutions of conical picks, their construction, methods of protection, dimensions and materials used. Next, based on materials produced by ZWM Carbonex, the classic method of their manufacture using the turning technology has been described. The authors have also presented briefly the use of die forging for the large-scale production of picks, applied by Górnicza Fabryka Narzędzi Sp. z o.o.
Mechanical cutting in underground mining faces increasingly difficult challenges. Deteriorating working conditions result in the development of automation and robotization, and the insufficient durability of cutting tools remains a serious problem. In addition to drilling, the technology of cutting provides a huge market for tools. Currently, mainly conical picks are used in the process of cutting. The cutterheads of shearers are equipped with at least several dozen conical picks, which, due to their workability and abrasiveness, sometimes work for merely a few hours. Hence the interest of users and manufacturers in the development of tools with increased durability. The article briefly presents the applied solutions of conical picks, their construction, dimensions and materials used. Attention was paid to the issues related to the protection applied and its marking. A review and analysis of commonly known construction solutions for picks and holders have also been carried out, and proprietary patent pending solutions for the pick and holder have been presented.