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Categorical data analysis is a statistical method that can be successfully applied in different scientific areas, such as: social, medical, psychological and political sciences. Classification and segmentation are statistical methods that usually have been used for large quantitative datasets to identify segments in the data, however if applied for categorical data for contingency tables, one may arrive at impressive results as well. This paper presents the use of classification and segmentation methods for categorical data in a contingency table based on real data from Central Statistics on the number of university positions in Polish voivodeships. The authors compare the results of different approaches and provide graphical results using advanced visualization tools, perceptual map (biplot) and dendrogram. Comparative analysis provides information on corresponding categories of academic positions in different voivodeships. All calculations are conducted in R.


Classification models enable optimal actions to be taken at every stage of the customer’s lifecycle. A circumstance affecting both the model building process and the assessment of their discriminatory power is the unbalanced distribution of the dichotomous dependent variable. The article focuses on the question of reliable assessment of the goodness of fit. The first part of the article reviews the measures of predictive power and then assesses the impact of the distribution of the dependent variable on the selected measures of goodness of fit. As a result, the high sensitivity of a number of measures such as lift, accuracy (ACC), or F-Score was observed. The sensitivity of MCC and Kappa Cohen’s measurements was also observed. Sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC), Youden’s index and measures based on ROC curves showed no such sensitivity. The conclusions obtained may allow the avoidance of misjudging the predictive power of models built for both learning and business practice.


The aim of this paper is to bring together some of the foundational and recent literature interlinking corporate governance and the leadership role of the board of directors. Strategic leadership is widely assumed to be a responsibility that defaults to the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). However, in practice, what most CEOs do is strategic management rather than strategic leadership. While strategic management does share key aspects of strategic leadership CEOs are expected to prioritize the managerial side over the leadership side. This is just one of the situations in which the board-room assumes the leadership role. This paper discusses how boards of directors conduct the process of strategic leadership in their organizations. In recent years there has been an increasing interest among scholars to understand how boards strategize from a behavioral point of view. This growing interest has resulted in the development of various typologies regarding boards’ involvement in the strategic leadership processes.


Problems associated with environmental pollution concern most large Polish cities. They are mainly caused by transport, municipal waste, emissions from the housing sector and from factories, particularly burdensome for the environment. Based on data related to the state and the protection of the natural environment and road transport, the author attempted to divide Polish cities with county (‘powiat’) rights into groups with different environmental features. Discriminatory analysis was used for the division. The highest average value of the discriminatory function was shown by the group with the most favourable environmental and social conditions. In subsequent groups, the environmental pollution grew more and more. In turn, classification functions of discriminatory analysis allowed for the assignment of individual cities to selected groups. Discriminatory analysis could therefore be used as a support tool for examining the state of the environment and environmental protection in cities with county rights. The goal of the work is to identify the diversity of environmental and communication conditions in Polish cities with county (‘powiat’) rights.


Background: Starting from the limitations of different single-method approaches to measuring the organizational efficiency, the paper is focused on covering both the financial and non-financial factors of this concept by combining two methods, namely the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).

Objectives: The main goal of the research in the paper is to show that certain deficiencies in the independent application of each method are eliminated by combining these methods.

Methods/Approach: The paper combines two methods, BSC and DEA, to measure the relative efficiency of all branches of a bank in Serbia.

Results: Results confirmed that the combined use of the named methods facilitates measurement of organizational efficiency by using both financial and non-financial indicators.

Conclusions: The paper shows that it is possible to achieve synergetic effects in the evaluation of organizational efficiency in the banking sector if BSC is applied first, to define goals within four perspectives, and then four DEA models are developed to measure efficiency in each perspective.


Background: Mission statements have come to play an important role as tools for organizational value sharing.

Objectives: This study aims to shed light on what types of values are highlighted in international airline alliance members’ mission statements, and whether there are significant differences or not.

Methods/Approach: Quantitative content analyses have been conducted with the goal to investigate mission statements of 61 members of international airline alliances: Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and oneworld.

Results: Frequency test outcomes reveal that “philosophy”, “self-concept” and “location” are the predominant components in oneworld, “philosophy” is the primary component in SkyTeam, and “philosophy” and “customer” are the focal components of Star Alliance. According to chi-square tests, Star Alliance members emphasize “customer” more often than others do, and oneworld members highlight “profitability” more often. One-way Anova tests with a post hoc analysis reveal that Star Alliance members cover more components than SkyTeam.

Conclusions: The theoretical implication of these findings is that they reveal the existence of unique values among international airline alliances members offering a competitive advantage. As a practical implication, these findings will be helpful for international airline alliances and airline managers for comparative purposes.


Background: Industry clusters and their relationship with the organization’s success, competitive advantage and innovations have been gaining research interest for decades, with the recent focus on defence industry.

Objectives: The aim is to investigate how Croatian Defense Industry Competitiveness Cluster (CDICC) fosters the knowledge management and innovation performance of its members.

Methods/Approach: Survey has been performed on a portion of CDICC members, and responses have been analysed using the factor analysis and the correlation analysis.

Results: The results indicate that CDICC actively contributes to knowledge creation and acquisition, innovation performance and market performance of its members. However, the analysis revealed that knowledge storage and knowledge dissemination are not sufficiently supported by CDICC.

Conclusions: The current problems with the various aspects of knowledge management within a cluster provide a direction for overcoming possible obstacles for further development of industrial clusters.


Background: Monitoring and surveillance are a fundamental part of the workplace environment, with employee performance and productivity as the main objects of scrutiny. However, many questions surround the ethical nature of managements’ ability to employ advanced digital technologies to monitor employee behaviour and performance while in the workplace. If unaddressed, these concerns have the potential to significantly impact the relationship between the employee and the employer, impacting trust in management resulting in negative attitudes and counterproductive behaviours.

Objectives: The goal of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of workplace surveillance whilst outlining some of the emerging issues relating to the use of employee monitoring technologies in the workplace.

Methods/Approach: A detailed review of the literature was conducted in order to identify the major issues relating to workplace surveillance. In addition, a number of practitioner-based studies were examined to extract and identify emerging trends and concerns at an industry level.

Results: Workplace surveillance is on the rise; however, empirical studies are in short supply.

Conclusions: The issue of workplace surveillance is an under-researched area, which requires much attention. There is a distinct need for clear measures and structures that govern the effective and fair use of communication technologies in the workplace.


In the article an attempt is made to identify the quality of credit exposure determinants of banks in European Union countries that were characterized by a high level of impaired loans at the end of 2017 (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Italy, Ireland, Greece, Portugal). Using the static panel-based approach the non-performing loan (NPL) determinants for the period from 2011 to 2017 were analyzed. The results showed that the high level of NPLs can be explained mainly by both macroeconomic and microeconomic factors. In particular, it has been shown that in the surveyed countries supervisory authorities should pay special attention to smaller banks with high dynamics of new loans and a low return on assets due to the fact that these entities are characterized by a higher NPL ratio. A higher level of NPL is also affected by a high concentration of the banking sector and higher interest rates on newly granted loans. As a result of research it was also shown that the majority of NPL determinants are the same in all types of banks, regardless of the business model and the scope of banking supervision. The differences were noticeable in characteristics regarding the housing market as well as the profitability of operations and lending dynamics of the analyzed entities.


The content presented in the article is a continuation of the research on the quality of data concerning intra-Community trade. Several measures used in literature to assess differences between mirror data are presented. The research was inspired by the works by , , and . These previous works contain some directions on how Intrastat data should be analysed. Based on this the analysed data on intra-Community trade in goods for 2017. The dynamics of intra-Community trade were also examined. The obtained results can be utilised by practitioners from both the domain of official statistics and the revenue authorities. In the article discrepancies in data on Polish foreign trade are studied in the context of Poland-EU partner country (bilateral relations) and Poland-EU partners (one-to-many relations). The aim of the article is to compare the results of selected literature studies with those obtained on the basis of the analysis of the latest data on intra-Community trade in Poland (mainly in 2017) and EU member states.