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Abstract

The market, economic and financial risks are the most important risks, which determine the quality and performance of small and medium sizes enterprises. The main objective of the article is to evaluate the most important sources of market, economic and financial risk between Slovak and Czech SMEs according gender and size of enterprise. The questionnaires of 895 entrepreneurs were collected and prepare on evaluating in the year 2018. The statistical hypotheses were accepted through the mathematical method as is Z-score. The gender of entrepreneur and size of enterprises between Slovak and Czech entrepreneurs is a significant factor of evaluating the sources of economic risk, as is development of the tax and insurance burden; weak availability of the financial resources (loans, foundations); development of the interest rates; growing prices of all types of energy. According to the evaluation of entrepreneurs, the intensity of sources of economic risk in Slovak business environment is higher than in Czech business environment.

Abstract

A large number of Slovak small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are confronted with often-leaving employees. This situation can have a devastating effect; thus, the ability to predict and early detect the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation provides them with a competitive advantage.

Paper aims to determine how employer attractiveness influences the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation. The online questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data during the September and October 2019 among 357 Slovak SMEs’ employees. The employees’ values were described by EmpAt’s five dimensions scale. Binary logistic regression was used to predict which employer attractiveness factor leads to an intention to stay in the organisation within the next 6 months. Results show that to the employee’s decision to stay working for the organisation contribute Application Value (AV Odds Ratio=2.53), followed by Economic Value (EV Odds Ratio=2.36), Interest Value (IV Odds Ratio=2.23), and Social Value (SV Odds Ratio=1.48). We did not find statistically significant associations between Development Value (DV) and the employees’ intention to stay or leave (ISL).

This study makes several contributions to extant human resource management literature. First, it extends the research on employer attractiveness and employee retention. Second, it expands the knowledge about the predictors of employees’ intention to stay in organisations. On the managerial level, it recommends that the employees’ intent to stay or leave should be regularly measured.

Abstract

The article focuses on analysis of online communication of pharmaceutical companies in the field of CSR. It is based on the fact that there are specific segments in the economy, which are called sensitive sectors. Even though they are often perceived as irresponsible in their nature, there are effective communication tools, which can used to increase positive corporate image. The present study is a part of a larger research that we conducted in the segment of pharmaceutical industry. We used information about companies available on their websites as a research material. We reviewed their availability on websites, but we also reviewed the content on which companies usually focus in terms of social engagement. Our research was supposed to prove that there are considerable differences among companies in our sample. We analyzed (qualitative content analysis) collected data (basic corporate documents like mission, vision and corporate values) using statistical procedures. These documents are crucial to corporate strategies, and often deal with responsibility issues which are then transformed into business strategies, tactics and programs. According to the nature of the research the generalization of the information provided is relatively limited.

Abstract

Many researchers have studied gender differences in the entrepreneurial intention of students by analyzing the influence of several intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention. Fewer researchers have analyzed the influence of the university’s environment and support system on the precursors of the entrepreneurial intention of students in general and of female students in particular. This study aims to fill that gap by analyzing the influence of the university’s environment and support system on the precursors of entrepreneurial intention of female students at a university in Atlantic Canada. Findings of this study confirm that two precursors of entrepreneurial intention—i.e., attitude toward behavior and perceived behavioral control—mediate the effects of the university’s environment and support system on the entrepreneurial intention of female students. They also confirm that the university’s environment and support system comprises three distinct but interrelated dimensions, namely entrepreneurship training, start-up support, and entrepreneurial milieu. Results of this study also suggest that the university’s environment and support system has a positive relation with the perceived behavioral control of female students. However, findings of this study also suggest that the university’s environment and support system has a positive but negligible influence on the attitude toward the behavior of the same students. The outcomes of this study will help the university assess the efficacy of its innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives in promoting entrepreneurial activities. By understanding its entrepreneurial efficacy, the institution will be better equipped to raise the perceptions of venture feasibility and desirability, thus increasing students’ perceptions of opportunity.

Abstract

Small business in the Russian Federation is actively developing not only in large cities, but also in small rural settlements. This is facilitated by the demand for agricultural products grown in ecologically clean territory. In addition, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation is developing support programs for rural entrepreneurs, which allows you to start a business without high costs. This paper discusses farming in detail as the form of small agricultural business. The theoretical part involves an analysis of the essence of the concept of a farm, the legislative aspect, the process of opening and the difference from other forms of management. From a practical point of view, the place of farms in the Russian Federation was determined in the structure of agricultural production. The study was conducted by systemic and monographic methods. As a result, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for the development of farming in Russia were identified.

Abstract

Advocacy for pro-environmental behaviour in the business arena is on the increase. Yet, many businesses have continued to indulge in “business-as-usual” practices, which are preoccupied with profit maximization objectives at the expense of all other social benefits. Such anti-environment practice has little or no regard for flora and fauna wellbeing. Hence, the main objective of this study is to review, explore and synthesize current views in the field in view of clarifying relevant concepts in green entrepreneurship context. Also, to identify behavioural and performance standards required of green entrepreneurship growth and development. To achieve the study objectives, we adopted integrative review of literature methodology. Concerning the findings, the paper identified new trends in green entrepreneurship and identified the need to clarify some relevant concepts, such as: industry life cycle, entrepreneurship knowledge sharing, institutional framework, entrepreneurship financing, green entrepreneurship decision-making process among others. We also identified the need to properly delineate the process leading to the practice of green entrepreneurship as a departure from the old entrepreneurship philosophy. Therefore, we recommend that further studies should endeavour to focus on identifying the step-by-step processes involved in the green entrepreneurship practice for the possibility of wider accessibility and ease of understanding of prospective green entrepreneurs in the interest of green entrepreneurship growth and development. Finally, we identified the dearth of literature with change management scholars’ view and contributions to the emancipation of green entrepreneurship from the cocoon of traditional entrepreneurship management practice hence, we threw it open for future research undertaking.

Abstract

Entrepreneurship as a driver of innovation and economic growth plays a key role in economic development and the appearance of knowledge and innovation-based economies. The most important effects of entrepreneurship development are increasing innovation, upgrading technology, increasing employment, producing technical knowledge, and generating income distribution at the community level, which can lead to increased national wealth and economic growth. At the moment, global developments are made entrepreneurship so important, and organizations need more innovation and entrepreneurship than ever before to adapt to new circumstances. In fact, in relation to entrepreneurship as the most important factor in economic development, organizations can gain more market share. The objectives of this study are to examine and overview the prospects and challenges of entrepreneurship in Iraq’s Kurdistan region. In this regard, it can be said that with the human resources available and the valuable experiences available in the field of entrepreneurship around the world, it is necessary to plan for entrepreneurship development in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KRI). It is revealed in this study Iraqi Kurdistan is determined can be one of the top entrepreneurial centers in the region with the scientific ability of specialists, and the potential of human resources, flexible structure and efficient technology. This paper recommended some strategies to reform and removing barriers to entrepreneurship development in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq by using factors such as entrepreneurship development and appropriate culture building, job training, setting up small business development centers, sponsoring entrepreneurs, establishing the legal framework for entrepreneurial activities, and providing spiritual support to entrepreneurs can lead to social, economic and industrial development and the declines of unemployment.

Abstract

Organisational culture has been the focus in both theory and practice and has captured attention throughout the last decade because of its substantial relationship between the concept itself and its outcomes such as gaining competitive advantage and performance in businesses. Entrepreneurial Orientation refers to the strategy making processes that it provides organisations with a basis for entrepreneurial decisions and actions. Despite of its importance and being a popular entrepreneurship concept there is little evidence of research that has been done to determine the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation, organisational culture adaptability and performance in hotels and where applied it is minimal. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation, organisational culture adaptability and performance of Christian Faith-Based Hotels in Kenya. This study was anchored on the epistemology philosophy and adopted a positivist approach. The study used the mixed methods approach guided by a cross-sectional survey research design. The variable items for organisational culture adaptability and performance were measured using the five-point Likert scale and using the Denison’s organisational survey instruments. The population of the study included 72 managers and 1878 junior staff from 24 Christian faith-based hotels in Kenya. Structural equation models (SEM) and an MMR model were fitted to assess the objective of the study. Based on the SEM and MMR models, the study found that adaptability has a significant positive influencing on the performance of Christian Faith Based Hotels β= 0.520, t= 2.444, p-value=0.018). The study also found that Entrepreneurial Orientation had a moderating role on the relationship between organisational culture adaptability and performance of Christian Faith Based Hotels based on the MMR model that had a significant change in R due to addition of the interaction term (R-square change=.063, F-change=4.293, p-value=0.043). The study is important to a business because it will encourage it to adapt to the environment to improve performance.

Abstract

This study was carried out to examine the role of self-efficacy and social networks on entrepreneurial intention among polytechnic students in Ile - Ife Osun state, Nigeria. Theory of Reasoned action was used as a theoretical framework for this study. A survey design was adopted. The data for this study was collected in 2018 via a purposive sampling technique, where 240 students (81 females and 159 males) with age range of 21–35 years (M = 23.61, SD = 2.63) were selected from one polytechnic. Inferential statistics (t-test for independent measure) was used to test the hypotheses in this study. Result showed that there was significant difference between entrepreneurial intention of polytechnic students with low self-efficacy and high self-efficacy. There was significant difference between entrepreneurial intention of polytechnic students with low social network and high social network. Therefore, to improve entrepreneurial intention among polytechnic students, psychologists should organize psycho-educational interventions aim at increasing self-efficacy and social networks of polytechnic students.

Abstract

The Knowledge Management (KM) has been defined as performing activites in discovering, capturing, sharing and applying knowledge in a more effective and effieicnt way. This study looks at only two such processes namely: capruring and sharing knowledge and their sub-processes. The purpose of this study is to conduct exploratory research to investigate the extent to which the sub-processes of knowledge capture and knowledge sharing of knowledge management impact the employee learning, adaptability, Job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job. This research was conducted using a purposive sample from financial services firms in Bangladesh. The sample consisted of 254 respondents from 23 different branches of eight commercial banks drawing from all levels of employees in the organizational hierarchy. The partial least squares (PLS) approach using Smart PLS has been used to test both the measurement and structural models. The findings of this study confirm that it is not the KM processes rather the sub-processes of KM process that can positively impact on employees' outcomes. This study involved self-administrated questionnaires and was open to all levels of staff and measured perceptions of the employees as opposed to actual behavior. This study suggests that employees' learning and adaptability depend on the usability and comfortability of the knowledge management initiatives undertaken by the management. Practitioners may employ the same experimental method using the instruments developed for this study to analyze the impact of the subprocesses of knowledge capture and knowledge sharing on employee outcomes. This study contributes to the existing literature of knowledge management that how the sub-processes of knowledge capture and knowledge sharing motivate employees to learn and adapt and how learning and adaptability contribute to job satisfaction and staying intention.