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Subject and purpose of work: Running an agricultural activity requires acquiring funds necessary for its functioning and proper development. The most classic examples of financing agricultural activity include all kinds of bank loans used by farmers for the purchase of agricultural land, construction and modernization of buildings, the purchase of machinery and equipment, as well as the establishment of perennial plantations or the purchase of a herd. The aim of the study is to present the possibilities of financing agricultural activity by cooperative banks in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Materials and methods: The study used the method of observation and analysis of banking materials. The source of information was the data of cooperative banks, the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture and the Central Statistical Office.

Results: Over the centuries, cooperative banks have developed techniques, methods and practices in the field of agricultural lending. They have somehow specialized in this area and offer farmers a full range of commercial loans. They have also actively participated in the redistribution of funds under the implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. for many years. Currently operating farms have access to many forms of financing (the most developed and available in banks, however, are loans) depending on their financial needs or planned investments.

Conclusions: Among many forms of foreign capital in agriculture, it is preferential loans that play a significant role as a stimulus to improve farm activities. Granting loans by cooperative banks is one of the basic tasks in their operations. Bank loans play an important role in changes taking place in agriculture. They generally do not violate the principles of market economy and financing rules, provided that the financial and credit policy takes into account the needs and limitations resulting from the current and forecast economic situation of farms.


Subject and purpose of work: The basic challenge for post-industrial areas is their inclusion in the socio-economic circulation and assigning them new functions in urban structures.

Materials and methods: This paper focuses on the analysis of selected cases of transformation of post-industrial areas for the following purposes: service, housing, cultural and educational.

Results: Despite a significant possibility of developing post-industrial areas for housing, cultural and educational or service purposes, as shown by the present case study, many barriers for land redevelopment can still be found. They include, among others, information, financial or system barriers.

Conclusions: Unregulated legal status, insufficient technical infrastructure, existing buildings, existing ecological contamination, and above all, limited availability of data and information on the condition of a given area.


A summary of the diffusion and development of time-geography in East Asia, specifically in Japan and China, is presented in this article. Previous studies have provided reviews of time-geographic research and spacetime behaviour research in both countries. Few studies, however, have told the story about how and why timegeography diffused into East Asia. By showing and analysing the academic life paths of Yoshio Arai and Yanwei Chai, we conclude that the development of time-geography in Japan and China goes hand in hand with their academic progress. Moreover, the interactions within their academic life paths mark some key events that promoted time-geography significantly. The similarities and differences between their academic life paths are also analysed in this article. Both scholars shared some common research topics, such as childcare problems, urban spatial structures and socioeconomic transformations, which were also the most prominent characteristics of time-geography in East Asia. In addition, the socioeconomic backgrounds of their academic life paths are also quite similar, which reflects the close relationship between time-geography and societal needs. Finally, this article discusses the effectiveness and disadvantages of the academic life path method, as the method has proven to be an important tool in analysing the role that key scholars play in promoting a certain discipline. In conclusion, the diffusion and development of time-geography in East Asia can hardly have happened without both individual scholars’ hard work and the exchange and cooperation activities between scholars.


People with severe mental illness face a different ‘interventional’ landscape compared to some decades ago, when mental hospitals were dominant, in Sweden as well as in the rest of the Western world. The aim of the research reported in this article was to follow men and women diagnosed with psychosis for the first time over a 10-year period, and to explore what interventions they experienced. The interventions, here defined as “spheres”, were either community-based or institutional. A third sphere represents no interventions. Based on data from registers and using a time-geographic approach, the individuals were visualised as 10- year trajectories where their transitions between the different spheres were highlighted. The results show a great diversity of trajectories. Two main categories were detected: two-spheres (community-based and no interventions) and three-spheres (adding institutional interventions). One third of the population experienced only community-based interventions, with a higher proportion of men than women. Consequently, more women had institutional experience. Two sub-categories reveal trajectories not being in the interventional sphere in a stepwise manner before the 10th year, and long-term trajectories with interventions in the 10th year. The most common pattern was long-term trajectories, embracing about half of the population, while one-fifth left the institutional sphere before the 5th year.


Subject and purpose of work: Tourism was the fastest growing industry until the outbreak of Covid-2019. Nevertheless, there are a few studies on how the industry interacts with the rest of economies within a comprehensive analytical framework. The main concern of this study is how international and interregional tourism interacts with national economic development and economic structural change. Tourism and economic growth are investigated in a multi-regional small open economy which is perfectly competitive.

Materials and methods: National economy consists of multiple regions and each region has three sectors: industry, service, and housing. Production side is the same as in the neoclassical growth theory. Households move freely between regions, equalizing utility level between regions by selecting housing, goods, tourism, and saving. A region’s amenity is endogenously related to the region’s population.

Results: We explicitly solve the dynamics of the multi-regional economy. The system has a unique stable equilibrium point.

Conclusions: We simulate the motion of the model and examine the effects of changes in the rate of interest, foreigners’ preference for visiting a region, a region ‘s total productivity of the service sector, domestic consumers’ preference for visiting a region, as well as the propensity to save, the propensity to consume regional services and housing.


Subject and purpose of work: The work aimed at identifying and characterising the interdependence between Polish investors’ personal preferences in investing and their opinion about the effectiveness of investment strategies. It was examined how the adopted investment horizon, the level of risk aversion and the time spent daily on investing impact the interviewees’ experiences and opinions on the effectiveness of investment strategies.

Materials and methods: As the survey method was employed, a questionnaire was sent to randomly selected Polish individual investors. The research material consisted of 652 questionnaire forms.

Results: The study showed a relevant dependence between Polish investors’ personal preferences and their opinions on the effectiveness of the particular strategies.

Conclusions: The interdependencies revealed in the study may be used by potential investors in the process of matching a strategy to individual needs so as to enhance the effectiveness of the choice. A higher awareness of the problem of matching an investment strategy to personal preferences will lead to improved effectiveness of capital allocation among Polish investors.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper concerns theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of foreign economic activity of the region in the context of Euroregional cooperation, which is an important factor of socio-economic development of the country. The main purpose is to identify such economic categories as “foreign economic activity activation of the region”, “organizational and economic mechanism activation of foreign economic activity of the region in the context of Euroregional cooperation” as well as to develop a methodological scheme for the diagnostics of foreign economic activity of regions in the context of Euroregional cooperation.

Materials and methods: In order to clarify theoretical concepts and identify similarities and differences in their definitions, the method of morphological analysis was adopted. This made it possible to systematize different options in terms of their characteristics and create new, hypothetically possible objects. Hence the research methods, of comparison, theoretical generalization and data systematization, etc. were applied.

Results: Some interpretations of the key definitions of the categories “foreign economic activity activation of the region”, “organizational and economic mechanism activation of foreign economic activity of the region in context of Euroregional cooperation” were worked out and methodical principles of analysis of foreign economic activity of the region were offered. Also, foreign economic activity diagnostics of regions in the context of Euroregional cooperation was carried out and interregional differences were defined. The results of the study can help derive recommendations for the introduction of foreign economic activity activation of the regions.

Conclusions: On the basis of the evaluation of Ukraine’s foreign economic activity in terms of exports, imports and the trade balance in 2010-2019, three periods were identified: 2010-2012 – before the crisis, 2013-2015 – economic crisis and its consequences, and 2016-2019 – the period after the crisis recovery and of unstable developmental trends. Significant interregional differentiation in the levels of the development of foreign economic activity of the regions of Ukraine was revealed. The leading regions in terms of foreign economic activity have proved to be Kyiv city, Dnipropetrovsk and Donetsk regions.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the study is the cooperation of secondary vocational schools (technical secondary schools) with institutions of the local environment and its impact on the improvement of the quality of education. The aim of the work is to identify the main results of the school’s cooperation with its immediate environment. An important element of the analysis is to find answers to several problematic questions, such as: What institutions and organizations do vocational schools cooperate with? What activities are undertaken in cooperation with institutions and organizations? What educational benefits do school students get from cooperation?

Materials and methods: The article uses a diagnostic survey method, an observation method, an inductive-deductive method, an interview and a literature review. The survey conducted among students and teachers of a selected secondary school made it possible to obtain information on the forms of cooperation with the local community and its impact on the processes taking place at school, in particular on the didactic and educational process.

Results: The school teaching staff members see the need for active cooperation with the local community because entities from the school’s environment can complement the didactic and educational activities. Therefore, numerous and varied forms of cooperation are undertaken, which, in the opinion of students, bring many benefits related to extending knowledge, improving professional skills and social competences.

Conclusions: The cooperation of the school with the local community leads to the improvement of the quality of education, both in the area of didactics and education, as well as modernization of the didactic base and promotion of the school. It is advisable to consciously shape the cooperation by the school management.


Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issues of promotion and its impact on the students’ decisions to choose a place to study. The problem seems to be important due to the changes on the educational market that have been taking place for several years. On the one hand, we have a large supply of academic institutions, and, on the other, an ongoing demographic decline. Such a situation requires the implementation of marketing activities which can establish and maintain permanent relationships between higher education institutions and the recipients of their offers.

Materials and methods: This study used a non-random selection. It included 100 randomly selected students of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska (PSW). Its aim was to answer two basic research questions, namely what impact on students’ choice of a place to study have promotional activities undertaken by higher education institutions, and which forms of promotion have the greatest and the least impact on students’ choices.

Results: The survey of respondents’ opinions was conducted at the turn of January and February 2020 by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire. The main source of information on academic institutions to choose from, as stated by the respondents, were their friends and family. Such an answer was given by as many as 40% of the respondents. The research also showed that the greatest impact on students’ decisions were: the information on the website of a higher education institution (24%), open days (19%), as well as leaflets and guides (16%).

Conclusions: The arguments for the choice of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, and not some other academic institution, were primarily a convenient location, its prestige, the possibility of foreign trips and the positive opinions of their friends. The respondents positively assess the image of their study place, but they find its promotional activities to be insufficient.