In this research work, rotating savings and credit association (ROSCA) effect on the growth of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and identification of a factor supporting the continuity of ROSCAs is studied. A well-designed questionnaire with a reliability value of 0.957 was distributed to 400 entrepreneurs in Wukari through snowball sampling technique. After validity check, 368 valid questionnaires were used for the research. Firstly, a paired t-test was applied to know if entrepreneurs achieve significant positive growth in their business before and after 5 years of joining ROSCAs. At 5% level of significance, entrepreneurs achieved significant positive growth in their businesses 5 years and above of joining ROSCAs. Secondly, a one sample proportion Z-score test was used to identify the major factor responsible for ROSCAs continuity. At 5% significance level, flexibility was identified as the major factor responsible for ROSCAs. It was concluded based on the results obtained that ROSCAs has a significant positive effect on the growth of MSMEs and ROSCAs continuity towards MSMEs growth is due to its flexibility factor in terms of operations, disbursement, seeking loans and interest rate.
In the present study, generalized classes of estimators for estimating population mean, ratio and product of two population means using rank of auxiliary character in presence of non-response are proposed. The bias and mean square error of proposed classes of estimators are obtained and their performances examined. Specific conditions under which the members of proposed classes of estimators attain minimum mean square error are obtained. Comparative study of the proposed classes of estimators with the relevant estimators is carried out. An empirical study is given to justify the efficiency of the proposed classes of estimators.
Collaborative consumption is currently an exciting topic of interest for many debates and controversies being perceived as a fast-growing social phenomenon. Considering the contemporary development processes via sharing economy, there is an interest to prove that the segment of young consumers practices changed from traditional buying and owning behaviour to collaborative consumption stratagems. Thus, the central objective of the present study is to explore the potential young consumer behaviour adjustments and to discuss the motivations behind those changes by considering the emergence of collaborative consumption.
The primary hypothesis of the present article states that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence teenager’s attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding participation in collaborative consumption.
Regarding the methodology, the author’s performed confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The objective was to determine if previously exposed motivational factors influence positively the young consumer’s behavioural intention and their attitude towards a supposed adherence to collaborative consumption schemes.
Identifying the macro-economic determinants of poverty is a key concern for developing poverty reduction policies. Since young people and young migrants in particular are more exposed to poverty, establishing the factors that trigger poverty among these social categories has even more relevance. A preliminary analysis shows that significant differences exist between at-risk-of poverty or social exclusion rate of young migrants and young nationals across European countries. For a more thorough study of the reasons behind these differences in poverty rates between young migrants and young nationals, two panel data regression models are estimated on a cross-section of 23 countries over the period 2010 – 2018 (one model for young migrants, the other for young nationals). Results confirm the main theories in the specialty literature: unemployment and inequality (measured by the Gini index) are the main triggers of poverty or social exclusion both for young nationals and young migrants. However, the income is significant for reducing poverty only for young nationals, but not for the young migrants. This result reinforces the necessity of better integration policies for young migrants in richer Member States.
Youth unemployment is a challenge in many European countries – especially since the financial crises. Young people face difficulties in the transition from education into employment. This article focuses on young mobile Europeans from six countries (Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Norway, Romania and Spain). The research question is whether and to which extent international mobility has an impact on employability and therefore reduces youth unemployment. By using a cluster analysis of personal adaptability, social and human capital and career identity, the importance of mobility experiences for employability is analysed in a recent dataset of 5,272 young (formerly) mobile respondents. Youth mobility is established as a strong characteristic for the employability cluster. Mobility is however not the long-term aim of most of the mobile young people, since most of the mobiles choose to return to their home countries after one or more stays abroad.
An important part of migration represents the brain drain, especially the migration of physicians. Romania has a health system in continuous reform, facing for over 3 decades a shortage of employees. Moreover, employed specialists and young physicians migrated, the health care system registering a medium efficiency. The number of migrant physicians from Romania followed an ascending trend, and this had negative consequences on Romanian population health. The main objective of this paper is identifying the profile and the dynamics of the migrant physician from Romania. Other objective is highlighting the Romanian counties where most physicians migrated from and the preferred destination countries.
In the current globalized world, migration represents a topic of great interest, generating advantages and downsides as well, both for the people and the communities implicated. Highly-educated migrants represent a key factor in fostering innovation, productivity and economic growth, and promote knowledge diffusion/distribution in both directions, from origin to destination country and vice versa. This research investigates the effects of highly-educated immigrants on the number of patents (a good proxy for measuring innovation activities), in the case of Austria, Finland and Sweden, between 2011 and 2017. For the empirical analysis of the study case, we used panel data and developed a multiple linear regression model estimated through the ordinary least squares method (OLS), at the country-level. In line with the vast existing literature, the main finding of this paper is that highly-educated immigrants, representing external factors of innovation, have a positive and significant impact on the number of patent applications in all three receiving countries. Moreover, financial support in R&D (in different sectors) and investments in human capital (from diverse fields) serve as internal factors of innovation and also contribute vastly to the enhancement of innovation.
The present paper contributes to studies on Romanian emigration from a demographic, spatial, and temporal perspective. The purpose of this paper is to assess the selected economic and demographic variables’ impact on the volume of Romanian emigration to the European Union (EU) during 2010-2017. The analysis was done using a gravity model. The models used in this study are the fixed effect model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM), both applied to panel data. The results show that the economic and demographic factors have a significant influence on the emigration’s destination, and the socio-economic and demographic situation in the host country determines the flow migration from Romania. The paper strengthens the literature through an empirical analysis of the economic and demographic determinants of Romanian emigration to the EU from the perspective of the country of origin.
COVID-19 pandemic has affected and still affects many countries in the world, reshaping many of the economic and social activities. Based on the results of an online survey, this paper highlights the perceptions of the way the pandemic has affected one of the most vulnerable categories in a society, migrants. We focus our research on the migrants and refugees from Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, living in Europe, as in the recent years and mostly after the migrant crisis in 2015, they are in large numbers in European countries. Using ANOVA models, our results show that unemployed migrants, students but also migrants who find it difficult on present income are most worried about the COVID-19 crisis and fell they will be greatly affected in terms of income and employment by this crisis. Also, women are more worried by COVID-19 than men with respect to the health aspect.