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Abstract

Unlike many studies concerning audit fees in Western Europe or the United States, literature concerning this kind of research is very limited in Central and Eastern Europe. This study aimed to show what factors shape audit fees in Poland. It was conducted based on data collected from the financial statements of 111 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2018. The study used a linear regression model to verify the determinants of audit fees. The research results indicate a positive relationship between audit fees and company size, measures of complexity (in addition to the ratio of inventories and receivables to total assets) and the fact that a company is audited by the ‘Big Four’ accounting firms.

Abstract

In light of renewed interests to boost African trade through continental integration, the authors identified trade facilitation as an integral component of complimenting the integration processes. This is especially relevant in the southern region where the majority of borders are characterised by complex and duplicated processes due to the lack of ‘one-stop border posts’. This study explores the attitudes, knowledge and practices of customs administrators on trade facilitation in Zimbabwe. Based on questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and secondary data collected from the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA), the results indicated that ‘trade facilitation’ was not included in strategic policies of ZIMRA. In terms of risk factors, low staff remuneration was identified as the major issue. Many cross-border authorities at the border (overstaffed) and outdated infrastructure were major constraints in the flow of cargo and people. The study recommends that ZIMRA should provide training on the ‘single window system’ in order to improve on coordinated border management. Secondly, ZIMRA should review staff remuneration frequently and synchronise it with regional standards. Thirdly, there should be alignment and coordination of the trade-related issues within various government ministries. Fourthly, customs authorities should establish stand-alone trade facilitation units at ports of entry.

Abstract

Local or regional fast-moving consumer (FMCG) brands sold mostly in delimited geographic areas are a growing trend. This study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards such products and to identify factors critical to their success. The paper is a comparative study between developed (Germany) and emerging (South Africa) nations to identify differences between the preference criteria for FMCG. The methodology involved an online cross section survey in the two countries. Respondents from both countries preferred local brands and believe they are better quality and more supportive of, and connected to, local communities. South Africans feel this more strongly, show greater commitment, and are prepared to pay more than Germans. ‘Beliefs’ regarding quality, value for money, and trust in local brands are critical.

Abstract

Securing the high level of performance of the supply chains is a difficult task. The harmonization of different interests, the coordination of the raw material supply and information flow, the cooperation of the partners, forging and maintaining a relationship of trust are challenging even in an ideal world in order to meet the customer demands. The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 presents the members of the supply chains with extreme challenges. Because of the epidemic, the value added activities of the supply chains are getting even more importance. It became clear that the different supply chains connect the whole economy in a global and local scale as well. The choice of the inventory and organizational strategy is a key aspect in a crisis like this. The aim of this study is to present the current challenges and their viable solutions in order to check the possibilities to maintain the operation of the supply chains even in this difficult economic and social period using an automotive case study as an example.

Abstract

We show the existence of involuntary unemployment without assuming wage rigidity using a neoclassical model of consumption and production. We consider a case of indivisible labor supply and increasing returns to scale under monopolistic competition. We derive involuntary unemployment by considering utility maximization of consumers and profit maximization of firms in an overlapping generations (OLG) model with two or three generations. In a two-periods OLG model it is possible that a reduction of the nominal wage rate reduces unemployment. However, if we consider a three-periods OLG model including a childhood period, a reduction of the nominal wage rate does not necessarily reduce unemployment.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between money supply, inflation rate, and economic growth in the context of Algeria, using various econometric procedures as co-integration without and with structural breaks in addition to three different ways of causality test for the period 1970-2018, the results confirm the long-run relationship between the variables with more than three structural breaks, but with the absence of the effects of money supply and inflation rate on economic growth both in short run and long run terms, on the other hand, the causality results confirmed the existence of hidden causalities among the variables running from the cumulative components not from the natural series, and all the results support the Monetarist view of inflation though the absence of any effect of money supply on economic growth.

Abstract

This article primarily aims to estimate the impact of the Armenian revolution and test the hypothesis, that is, the benefits of revolution and establishment of democracy can be seen even in the first year after the political change. To calculate the short-term net surplus of the revolution, we estimated the difference between the projection of Armenian economic activity for the four quarters after the revolution, using only pre-revolutionary (assuming there was no revolution) and real data for the same period after the revolution. Using deep neural network models, such as recurrent neural networks and convolutional neural networks (CNN), we compared prediction accuracy with structural econometrics, such as autoregressive integrated moving average and error correction model, using pre-revolutionary data (2000Q1–2018Q1) for Armenia and combinations of models using an ensembling mechanism. As a result, CNN overperformed the rest of the models. The CNN simulation on post-revolutionary data indicates that during the period 2018-Q2–2019-Q1, Armenia gained approximately 850 million EUR in terms of GDP, thanks to the revolution and the new government. Moreover, out of seven models, the five best models in terms of accuracy indicated that the revolution had no negative impact on the Armenian economy, as the actual values were within or above the 95% confidence interval of the prediction.

Abstract

The paper aims to find what determines the choice of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) between public debt (corporate bonds) and private debt (bank loans). For this purpose, we estimate logistic regression models and panel models of corporate borrowing determinants to compare the impact of enterprise characteristics on financing with the use of corporate bonds or bank loans. In this study, we are interested in explanatory variables that explain the role of transparency measured by the level of information disclosure; and a risk proxy of the variability of operational cash flows and investment risk (retrieved from generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity [GARCH] models estimated on companies’ stocks [shares] trading on the WSE).

Abstract

This article presents the role of clusters in the Polish innovation system. This role has evolved in recent years due to maturing of cluster organisations and the expansion of their ability not just to provide services for cluster members but also to perform selected public tasks. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent to which clusters can contribute to the objectives of development policies and thus to the economic development of the Polish economy and answer the question what role clusters can play in the innovation system. Based on a survey of 44 cluster organisations in Poland and interviews with cluster managers, the study explores the possibility of engaging Polish cluster organisations in the implementation of public policies. The results confirm that many of the Polish clusters achieved such a level of development that they themselves see the possibility of engaging in public tasks, for example education and specialised training, helping enterprises in digital transformation, monitoring technological trends, and so on. Therefore, it is justified pursuing a dual cluster policy. This duality means focus on two objectives: supporting cluster organisations on the one hand and implementing cluster-based development policies on the other hand.

Abstract

This article focuses on the determinants of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Russia. The article briefly describes the historical context of foreign investment policymaking in Russia since the beginning of the economic transition to an open market economy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. When compared to other developing countries, Russia's FDI stocks continue to lag despite a set of proactive measures undertaken by the national government. Following the literature review, the most commonly cited determinants explaining inward FDI in Russia include market size, labour productivity, trade and investment barriers, domestic exchange rate, rule of law and institutional framework.

This article aims to contribute empirically to the study of determinants of inward FDI in Russia.

This article uses the Pseudo-Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimation technique, the robustness of the PPML estimation is then verified using a standard autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with the Durbin–Watson autocorrelation test.

Our benchmark results suggest the efficiency-seeking motive of FDI over a market seeking and horizontal motive as a main reason for inward FDI in Russia. The ARIMA regression indicates the absence of statistical significance of economic openness and variables of labour productivity. Overall, the market size and tax rate variables have the most positive effects on the inward FDI, while barriers to trade and sanctions have the most negative effects. The results confirm that for transitional economies, integration into the world economy, proactive local development and tax cuts for outside investors remain to be critical when it comes to attracting FDI.