Corruption is a factor that affects a company severely either directly or indirectly. It may have a positive or negative impact on the economic situation of the company. This article verifies the hypothesis about the corporate perception of corruption as an obstacle to business performance. It also identifies which factors do have a substantial effect on the perception of corruption by companies. The study was carried out using the logit model. The data used were obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) database for 2016.
Tanzania, like most other developing countries, faces numerous economic challenges in striving to achieve sustainable economic growth and development through taxation. In the literature, the debate on how effective taxes are as a tool for promoting economic growth and economic development remains inconclusive, as various research have reported mixed effects of tax on economic growth. This article investigates the effect of taxation on economic growth in Tanzania using the recently developed technique of autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) bounds testing procedure for the period from 1996 to 2019. Various preliminary tests were conducted including stationary tests as well as the pair-wise Granger causality test. According to the results obtained, domestic goods and services (TGS) taxes are positively related to GDP growth and are statistically significant at 1% level. Income taxes, on the other hand, were found to be negatively related to GDP growth and to be statistically significant at 5% level. The pair-wise Granger causality results indicated that there is bidirectional Granger causality between TGS and GDP growth at 1 % significance level. The government should aim at growing, nurturing and sustaining tax base to positively drive economic growth even further.
The transition of the Polish economy has brought about profound changes in the nature of contracts between employees and employers. These changes have been affected by the process of globalisation and dynamic technological progress. In particular, the characteristics of the contracts and the work itself have changed, which has affected the utility derived from employment by employees. The article attempts to identify the factors providing job satisfaction using the example of railway service employees. In particular, factors such as the position held, levels of tension and stress at work, level of autonomy, opportunities for personal development, the level of accordance between employees’ skills and job requirements, convenient working hours, length of vacation and the level of social respect enjoyed are important. In the study, an innovative discrete choice experiment method and econometric analysis were used to make a comprehensive examination of the factors providing satisfaction to transport service employees. Conclusions from the study indicate that although remuneration is an important element influencing job satisfaction, other non-wage factors also affect the satisfaction. The most important factors include managerial position, opportunities for personal development and the level of social respect related to the given occupation/position.
The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact that Big 4 companies have had after the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) became mandatory on the audit market. Thus, after thorough research of the specialised studies, the impact of the financial reporting based on IFRS is analysed, while considering that Big 4 companies have created a strong monopoly that led to several changes on the audit market. All the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange that traded premium shares from 2011 to 2019 were analysed. With the use of ANOVA analysis, this paper verifies if the profitability, shareholders’ funds, firm size and the size of the business group influence the choice of the audit firm. Our results confirm that the choice of an audit firm is influenced by the shareholders’ funds, number of employees and the size of the business group. Besides, this paper presents an analysis of the changes that have occurred from 2011–2019 on the audit market of Romania.
The academic literature in the past has frequently highlighted that the European Commission (EC) tends to provide more accurate public finance forecasts compared with national governments, thanks to its neutrality. The recent conflicts regarding the excessive deficit procedure with Romania and Italy and rule of law with Hungary and Poland raises the question of whether such conclusions are still binding. Therefore, we analysed a panel of forecasts submitted by the national governments with an annual update of Convergence programmes and corresponding EC predictions. Our dataset contains predictions of the general government deficit, revenues and expenditures for EU27 economies and the United Kingdom in the years 2014–2019. First, the analysis shows no meaningful discrepancies between both estimates when the horizon is set at the current year. Forecasts for the next year have equal accuracy in the case of government revenues and expenditures. However, the EC performs worse in the case of the final deficit. Second, cross-country effects are present, but the accuracy is different mainly in the very small economies, that is, the Baltic countries, Cyprus, Malta and Luxembourg. Amongst the more populated states, the EC outperforms the Slovakian and Denmark governments but has worse performance than the Irish, Portuguese and Spanish governments. We also do not see evidence of any political bias in the forecasts.
The paper focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of investment on cash flow (ICFS) made by listed companies in Poland. Achieving this goal will also involve analysing and drawing conclusions about the balance-sheet channel of monetary transmission. An empirical part uses data from financial statements for Poland derived from Emerging Markets Information Services (EMIS), related to companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and NewConnect. Estimations were made using the Ordinary Least Squares method with robust standard errors, and results made it clear that cash flow has a positive significant impact, indicating that most companies operate on the imperfect and incomplete market, and with constrained or costly access to external financing. Further, it is found that the impact is significantly strong in the slowdown, as financial constraints are more binding. These results seem to confirm that the balance-sheet channel of monetary transmission is operative in Poland.
The paper aims to find the relationship between corporate expenditures on R&D and tax burdens comparing German with French R&D incentives. We use the OLS method for the financial and patent cross-sectional data retrieved from the Amadeus database. The results confirm that firms with higher tax spread (the difference between the nominal and effective tax rates) spend less on R&D. These are in line with findings of a positive relationship between corporate R&D investment and tax burdens. Thus, firms that invest in R&D more pay higher taxes. However, they are less profitable as the return on R&D investment is visible only in the long run. German corporate expenditures on R&D are significantly sensitive to internal funds (proxied by cash flow) and depend on debt, contrary to French. The results indicate that the French firm's age (a phase of life cycle) has a significant impact on spending on R&D compared to German. Whereas in both countries, corporate expenditures on R&D are sensitive to the number of obtained patents. The capability of reducing the level of tax burdens below the nominal tax rate in the case of older German firms stimulates them to increase their R&D expenditures. However, German firms can decrease tax due to the use of R&D grants (revenues without taxation) in the absence of other tax incentives related to R&D.
The automotive industry is a particularly sensitive sector of the economy. Numerous legal changes have been introduced in Poland that may affect the company's liquidity and profitability. Sales of new vehicles in Poland were very high until the end of 2019. I have presented the most recently available financial data, and hence it can be concluded that they are not distorted. The article discusses the issue of cash flow statements and the associated financial ratios, as well as assesses the financial liquidity among the importers of new, ten best-selling car makers in Poland between 2015 and 2019. Moreover, I have analysed the relationship between profitability ratios and liquidity ratios as well as cash adequacy ratios during this period. According to my findings, in most cases, there is a positive and strong relationship between profitability and financial liquidity in the automotive industry.
This paper analyses the influence of financial development on income inequality. Throughout this work, one may find the overview of theoretical and empirical literature as well as the empirical model using fixed panel data method. This research paper tries to disentangle the opposing views on the relationship between finance and income distribution, by evaluating the impact of the different dimensions of financial development on the level of income inequality. The important added value of this research is the usage of quintiles of income distribution as a dependent variable that may help to recognise the effect of financial development on the poorest and richest. Another novelty of the paper is the consideration of the effects of financial variables on Gini coefficient in the long and short run. The main results of the analysis using dataset from 2003 to 2014 indicate that financial access decreases income inequality.
The article is devoted towards the application of managerial accounting for deliverology development at the local government level in countries and comparing them to the stage of fiscal decentralisation implementation in Ukraine. The aim of the article is to show how the application of the managerial accounting approach in the public sector can contribute to the introduction of deliverology at the local level using Ukraine as an example. The methodology is based on the application of Difference in Difference method for the implementation of deliverology at the local government level. It has been proved that the use of multi-criteria decision-making methods in the analysis of the performance of budget programmes at the local level will contribute to the improvement of public services delivery. The main contribution of this study is to provide the basis for developing recommendations for the use of a single or uniform standard of electronic databases on regional development indicators and local budgets. This will help to ensure operational control over deviations of actual indicators from planned ones, as well as identify regions where local authorities are using resources inefficiently.