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This article aims to analyze the current theory of managing the State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) with the use of Single Ownership Entity and to suggest alternative solution, particularly, managing SOEs with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

After a thorough review of the literature analyzing the connection between CSR and SOEs, the article states that there are important missing points in the previous research and academic debate: (1) no scholar directly emphasizes CSR as the answer to the problems of SOEs; (2) there is no research conducted on the comparison of Single Ownership Entity and CSR, evaluating their potential positive effects on SOEs; (3) accordingly, academic literature does not discuss the ways and tools of implementation of CSR in SOEs.

The article aims to fill this gap and emphasize the links between CSR and SOEs. Due to the challenges, goals and ownership structure of SOEs, CSR is the most suitable corporate governance model for SOEs and its effective implementation is more vital than the execution of recommendations on creating the single ownership entity suggested by international organizations. The research question of the article is to compare managing the SOEs with the use of the CSR model (Alternative Theory) to single ownership mechanism established by OECD (Current Theory) and find out whether CSR is a better solution to the existing problems of SOEs.

Finally, the article discusses the institutional context of SOEs based on the examples of the countries of Eastern and Central Europe where the problems regarding SOEs remain remarkable; presents the balance of interests of stakeholders’ in SOEs in connection to Alternative and Current Theories; and combines analysis, research and recommendations of international organizations and academia towards the problems of SOEs.


The goal of this paper is to identify critical factors in success/failure of public policies focusing on fighting the spread of COVID-19 pandemic using a sample of three countries from Central and Eastern Europe with different results regarding COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates, namely the Czech Republic, the Russian Federation, and the Slovak Republic. Based on comprehensive literature review, three independent variables were worked out: the scope/scale of public policy anti-pandemic interventions, the timing of public policy interventions, and the success of public policies in motivating compliance with anti-pandemic measures. Taking into account the similarity of measures introduced by national governments, the results suggest that the timing of public policy responses and success in motivating compliance may be critical factors in containing the pandemic.


The European continent faces an apocalyptic pandemic that poses mortal danger to millions of citizens. This paper seeks to address the role played by European public policy in addressing the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, each Member State across Europe is applying its own measures to deal with the coronavirus; namely, decentralised decision-making that could trigger political tensions among the states. The paper argues that European public policy must change rapidly and fundamentally if these tensions are to be successfully managed; otherwise, such policy might simply cease to exist. Moreover, the known and notorious problem of collective action, information asymmetries, irrationality, negative externalities and the related free-riding phenomenon persistently are distorting the Member States’ combined efforts, resulting in deficient attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19. The paper also argues that the current unprecedented outbreak of this superspreading virus calls for a bigger EU-wide coordinated response. We argue that the Covid-19 pandemic is a good example of an area in which the central EU level holds a comparative advantage over lower levels of government. In addition, the paper offers several substantive insights into ways to improve the public policy response in the ‘war’ against Covid-19.


The active ageing policy supports several types of activities, including labour force participation, caregiving, social participation, and physical activity. The paper illustrates the prevalence of supported activities across individual characteristics and four supra-national European regions to assess how these activities are available for specific groups of older people. The analysis draws on wave 6 from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe held in 2015. A set of figures describes the availability of activities sorted by gender, age, health status, and the level of education in 17 European countries divided into four regions, and thus, presents the unavailable descriptive data important for researchers and policymakers. The results most of all show that the majority of the 50+ population engages in vigorous physical activity, whilst labour force participation and caregiving concern about one-third of it, and other activities much less. The findings show the inadequacy of the active ageing as a uniform context-insensitive EU policy and detect its potential for raising inequalities in later life, whilst the theoretical implications are discussed.


A democratic government should adhere to firm public administration principles, legal instruments, structures and mechanisms. However, providing these elements is insufficient to guarantee integrated participative service delivery. This article aims to unravel the most important elements required to create a participative governance model that fuses horizontal intra-relationships between public officials and departments and vertical interactions between public and private networks. The research methodology entailed a critical desktop document analysis of books, articles, regulatory policy and strategy documents. Network governance was conceptually and contextually analysed through unobtrusive research methods. It served as a possible analytical model for democratic governance, where citizens take centre stage in participative decision-making. The findings provide both a description and a contextualisation of the themes that emerged from the research. The article highlights that the network governance model could help South Africa move forward from a dated, elitist democracy based on a dependency model, to a participative democracy model, where communities and government work together. The article concludes that South Africa can only realise the National Development Plans (NDPs) 2030 goals (to maximise people's development, strengthen governance networks and enhance state's capacity to provide adequate public services) by drawing on partnerships within a network governance framework.


The ancient history of the concept of condominium and the particular attitude towards the right of ownership of an apartment has attracted worldwide recognition for this type of property. The concept of condominium is based on three components: (1) individual ownership of an apartment; (2) joint possession of common property of a plot of land and parts of a building; and (3) membership in an owners’ association. An apartment in a condominium is an exception to the principle of superficies solo cedit in property law. In this case, the rights of ownership of owners of apartments in a condominium—the rights of ownership of a number of persons—are accumulated with regard to a plot of land. This article analyses, on the one hand, the peculiarities of apartment ownership in condominiums, Georgian legislation—which is the result of the reception of German civil law, and, on the other hand, the court practice developed on these issues in Georgian law.


Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.

Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.

Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.

Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.


The article discusses the latest wave of the higher education quality assurance (QA) reform, implemented by the Government of Georgia in response to its obligations envisaged by the EU–Georgia Association Agreement and its consequent Association Agenda 2017–2020. We argue that Eu conditionality was a major driving factor for the modernization of Georgian QA system according to the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG 2015), and even though the reform was mostly implemented in the framework of the country’s EU integration, an expected reward in the form of the membership of the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) granted to the national Center for Educational Quality Enhancement (NCEQE) of Georgia was the major driving force for implementing the reform successfully. While this reward-driven reform has resulted in the ENQA membership, it has not inevitably led to building a sustainable, independent and development-oriented external quality assurance system for the enhancement of Georgian higher education. Therefore, the entire QA reform was merely aimed at “talking the EU talk” (Schimmelfennig & Sedelmeier, 2005, p. 27) by the Georgian government instead of actually being focused on the development of internal “quality culture” in Georgian higher education institutions.


The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship between the declared activities in line with corporate social responsibility and the implementation of diversity management concepts. The paper presents the essence of corporate social responsibility as an element of company strategy, and the importance of the concept of managing diversity of employees in building an organizational culture based on mutual respect and a sense of security of employees, and thus increasing the efficiency and innovation of the company, by recognizing the individual characteristics of the people employed. An in-depth interview method was used, conducted on the basis of a non-standardized interview questionnaire with HR directors of domestic companies. The obtained empirical material was presented as a case study.