In February 2015 the UK TV station Channel 4 started screening James Bluemel’s series “The Romanians Are Coming”, a three-part documentary film about “the lives of poor Romanian people who seek work in Great Britain, seen through the eyes of the British people”. This documentary provoked strong opposition from some Romanian politicians and mass media outlets. In the UK the reaction was a contrasting one: sympathy, understanding and compassion. We showed the series to three Romanian university classes in 2017-18 and the students largely had a negative reaction similar to that of those Romanian commentators. A standard content analysis of the film, however, suggests that it gives a positive image of Romanian immigrants in the UK. Despite this, our audiences tended to form a negative perception of the film. We attribute this disparity to the wording of its title activating two classical stereotypes: that Romanians are often Roma, and that poor people are a source of social problems. The film as a whole in fact projects an opposite message, but once these stereotypes have been activated the content is automatically perceived as negative.
This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors on learning difficulties among adolescents with special needs. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized. One hundred and twenty adolescents comprising 56.7% males were purposively selected among students at a facility for special needs individuals in Ilorin, Nigeria. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire containing perceived stigma of intellectual disability scale, social support questionnaire and Colorado learning difficulties questionnaire. Only individuals who voluntarily consented to participate were included in the study. Data were subjected to statistical analysis utilizing the SPSS v20. There was no significant gender difference on learning difficulties among individuals with special needs (t (118) =. 138, p>.05). Individuals with high perceived stigma reported significant higher learning difficulties compared to their peers with low perceived stigma (t (118) = 15.70; p˂.05). There was a significant influence of type of disability on learning difficulty (F (2, 117) =9.152, p< .01); individuals with intellectual impairment exhibited more learning difficulty compared with those with visual impairment (8.09) and those with hearing impairment (11.62). The study recommends that government should reinforce law that protect individuals living with disability and enhance their learning in schools. It is also important that sufficient support services are made available for these students to reinforce their motivation for school learning.
The study examined the influence of impulsivity on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour and also scrutinized the mediating roles of family type and peer pressure on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour in Southwestern Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey that employed a multi-stage sampling procedure in which respondents were selected at different levels and stages. A total of 1080 respondents selected from six Universities participated in the study. Their age ranges from 15-19 years with a mean of 15.9±1.2 years. Data gathered through Impulsive Behaviour Scale and the Sexual Behaviour Inventory was analysed by t-test and ANCOVA. The result showed that impulsivity (t = 6.04, df =1078, p <0.05) had significant influence on the sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria. The result further showed that age: F (2, 1077) = 18.20, p < 0.05; family type F (2, 1077) = 25.41, p <0. 05 and peer pressure F (2, 1077) = 53.13, p< 0.05 have an intervening impact on the influence of impulsivity F (2, 1073) = 1.37, p < 0.05) on sexual risk behaviour of the undergraduates. The study concluded that impulsivity enhances sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria.
Vaccine hesitancy is not a singular view but encompasses a set of positions located between complete acceptance of vaccination and complete rejection of vaccination. In this paper, I argue that vaccine-hesitant attitudes emerge at the intersection of individual and structural processes, and thus can be better conceptualized as “extended attitudes”. Drawing on the theoretical understanding of risk and science scepticism in post-modern societies, I consider hesitant attitudes towards vaccination as addressing risks that are induced in our everyday lives by science developments. I conducted K-Means Cluster Analysis on Eurobarometer data from 2019 regarding Europeans’ attitudes towards vaccination. Four clusters of vaccine-hesitant attitudes were identified. “Price hesitation” and “Effort hesitation” result from restricted access to vaccination because of structural constraints, such as low economic capital and health care system’ deficits. “Unexercised pro-vaccination” is an attitude manifested by people who grant authority to science to manage health-related risks, even though they did not vaccinate in the last five years. “Consistent anti-vaccination” pertains to highly reflexive individuals who dismiss experts’ authority because of scientifically derived risks. My analysis enhances the theoretical understanding and the empirical assessment of vaccine-hesitant attitudes in the European Union and can inform public health policies in this area.
This paper reports the results of using an existential psychology perspective to examine interview responses of 13 Latina mothers who had immigrated to the Asturias region of Spain. Purposes of the interviews included determining the Latinas’ reasons for immigrating. their post-migration challenges, and their responses to those challenges. Thematic analysis of the Latinas’ answers to interview questions revealed that their deciding to migrate to Spain and their responses to post-migration challenges can be understood in terms of the key existential psychology concepts of free choice and meaning. The analysis revealed two self-identifications that provided the Latinas with life meaning that helped them deal with challenges: Being a Mother and Determination to Move Forward. It is argued that the presence of these two meanings in the Latinas’ experiences provided them with a sense of coherence, purpose, and significance and helps account for the women’s strength and resilience in the face of post-immigration economic, social, and personal challenges and for their choosing to remain in Spain despite those challenges.
Climate change becomes a widely acknowledged and inevitable global challenge of 21st century. For developing countries like Ethiopia, it intensifies existing challenges of ensuring sustainable development. This study examined factors affecting climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies by taking in Protection Motivation Theory. The study draws on mixed research approach in order to assess the subjective understanding about climate change threats and identify the factors determining responses to climate change. While qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews, quantitative information was collected using semi structured survey from 296 randomly selected farmers from different agro-ecologies. Qualitative data was dominantly analyzed using content analysis while descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data. Almost all respondents (97%) perceived that climate change is occurring and threatening their wellbeing. Dwindling precipitation, increasing temperature and occurrence of human and animal disease were perceived to represent climate change. From nationally initiated strategies, farmers were found to largely practice soil and water conservation and agricultural intensification, which they perceived less costly and compatible to their level of expertise. The result of binary logistic regression revealed that perceived severity of climate change, perceived susceptibility to climate change threat, perceived own ability to respond, response efficacy and cost of practices predicted farmers motivation to practice climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Thus, building resilient system should go beyond sensitizing climate response mechanisms. Rural development and climate change adaptation policies should focus on human capital development and economic empowerment which would enable farmers pursue context specific adaptation and mitigation strategies thereby maintain sustainable livelihood.
This article approaches the topic of the emerging adulthood with young people in Romania, as well as the beginning of the first work experience. The main aim is to identify the factors of a successful transition from school to independent life. The article examines the social status and the issues the young people in Romania face with regard to the transition from education to employment. The data type longitudinal panel study refers to the cohort of young people born in 1994-1995, the generation which graduated from the 12th or 13th class in 2012. We answer the question „Which are the factors that determine the first work experience for Romanian young people and what does this look like?” Half of the young people have work experience - 50.1%, with 25.2% working at the time they filled in the questionnaires, two years after graduation. Employment is explained to an extent of 1% by gender and area of residence, 4% by factors of social exclusion and 1% by factors related to negative life events. All these factors explain the variance of 6% in the employment of young people. Linear regression analysis (hierarchical) showed that social inclusion factors have the greatest effect on employment, with 4% of employment variance explained by social exclusion factors, while the influence of the demographic variables, factors of social exclusion and factors related to negative life events explain 6% of the youth employment variance.
The success of higher education graduates’ transition to the labor market is analyzed in this paper. A series of representative factors which influence the success rate on the labor market were analyzed through an exhaustive case study among graduates from West University of Timisoara. The results show a high level of satisfaction amongst graduates, despite the high level (over 40%) of total incongruence (vertical and horizontal) between the degree’s field and the actual workplace. We can also assert that the graduates’ insertion in the labor market is a real success, since most of them are able to get a job in less than 6 months from graduation (58.5%), even more do so 12 months post-graduation (83.9%).
The paper examines the link between organizational climate and work engagement among the non-teaching staff of a Nigerian University. Participants consisted of 229 (F=46.7%; Mean age =45.7) non-teaching staff selected using stratified random sampling technique from non-teaching staff of the institution. Participants completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Organizational Climate Measure that were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test analysis. Results revealed that organizational climate is related to work engagement among registry staff. It also showed that female employees were more engaged with their work than their male counterparts. The paper recommends the design of appropriate strategies and interventions to ensure that employees feel more engaged in their work-roles.
Since over a decade, there are ongoing debates about the relationships between the scientific field of consumer research and the political field of consumer policy. To date, there exist theoretical overviews of the international state of the art in consumer research and its historical developments regarding topics, and theoretical and methodological advancements. There also exist few empirical studies which approached this field through content analysis of scientific articles, case studies or literature reviews. Nonetheless, prior research has yet neglected consumer researchers themselves and, above all, their stances toward consumer policy. To fill this gap, this article seeks to enhance knowledge about consumer researchers by presenting empirical results of a survey among Austrian consumer researchers. In contrast with previous research, this article relates its empirical findings to better understand how consumer research can become a more integrated and institutionalized research area, in Austria and elsewhere. As the results indicate, there are some commonalities in Austrian consumer research which may serve as a fertile ground for a closer integration of the field and which could enhance cooperation between the scientific and the political field. Yet, as this article shows, there also exist some obstacles, which may hinder such efforts. It concludes with some propositions for consumer research as a scientific field and discusses obstacles and prospects of a future collaboration between this scientific field and consumer policy. In doing so, this article seeks to contribute to the debate about a so-called “evidence-based” consumer policy suggesting that consumer policy can draw on a wide array of scientific perspectives and should not restrict itself to behavioural insights alone, a current trend in some European countries and in the European Commission. As will be shown, the Austrian case is furthermore informative to better understand internal and external (political) efforts to foster cooperation within consumer research and the relationship between consumer research and consumer policy.