The rapid development of CAD 3D systems has led to the development of solutions enabling the physical achievement of the designed object, already at the design stage. Such a solution is the rapid prototyping method, intended for fast, precise and repeatable production thanks to additive technology. The first basic step of this method is a 3D scan. It is a technique that analyzes a real object in order to collect data about its basic (geometric) and additional (e.g. color) features. The collected data is used to generate three-dimensional, virtual models. Scanning can be performed in various ways using different devices. The aim of the article is to review the available technologies for digitizing 3D objects and to compare them in the context of individual application areas. It presents selected tools and software that will economically and efficiently increase the range of applications of digitization methods in the production process and offering various services on the market.
The article deals with the problem of acoustic modelling of sport and hunting shooting ranges for the purposes of carrying out acoustic impact assessments on the environment. The fashion for recreational shooting and the dynamic development of shooting ranges resulted in conflict situations between the shooting range and the residents. Increasingly, the condition for allowing the shooting range to be used is to carry out an acoustic analysis to confirm the lack of noise nuisance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines for acoustic modelling of shooting ranges, taking into account their purpose and types of shooting axes. Each of the shooting axes is designed for a different type of shooting and thus has different acoustic characteristics. In the article, the author presents a method of modelling noise emissions from the shooting range on the example of one of the popular shooting competitions which is the hunting trap. First, acoustic measurements of the unit noise source related to the firing of shots by a firearms shooter were made. Then the directional characteristics of this source were determined, the shooting axis of the “hunting trap” type was modelled during a typical shooting competition and its directionality was determined. Then, on the example of a specific shooting range, the possibility of using the results to analyse the propagation of noise into the environment during typical shootings on the trap axis was presented.
Drilling with a rotary steerable system, the mechanical drilling speed increases by two times compared to drilling with a screw bottom-hole motor, which provides significant savings drilling-time. The effective length of the horizontal elbow increases, which enables to increase the production rate more than twice. It is found that in comparison with the bottom hole motor, rotary steerable system provides drilling smoother barrel, which reduces the risk of accidents to come out. The dependence between the type of the bent housing and the most rational fields of its application is revealed, recommendations on the choice of the rotary steerable system for various issues of directional drilling are developed.
Despite the ongoing changes in the energy and economic structure of the European Union countries, mineral and energy resources such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas, copper ores, zinc ores and many other minerals continue to be extracted. Each year, the mining and extraction sector emits thousands of tons of harmful substances into the atmosphere, in the form of greenhouse and other air-polluting gases, as well as harmful dusts. These substances include, amongst others, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, as well as PM2.5 and PM10. The European Union climate policy clearly recommends that the exploitation of mineral resources be carried out in full respect of the principles of their rational, economical and environmentally neutral acquisition, which is confirmed by the promoted strategy of sustainable development economy. Therefore, this means the necessity to undertake actions aimed at limiting the emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the atmosphere. To assess the actions taken by the European Union countries to date with respect to limiting those emissions, a comparative analysis was carried out for the particular countries. This analysis encompassed the emission of harmful substances from the mining and quarrying sector by the European Union countries in the years 2008 and 2017. The purpose of the analysis was to show the diversity of those countries in terms of the emission of harmful gases and dusts, as well as to divide them into similar groups. Such a division paves the way for developing a common climate policy and exchanging experiences between the countries from the particular groups. The European Union countries were divided into similar groups using the k-means grouping method. Comparison was also made for the emissions of the substances under analysis for the particular countries over the research years. The results obtained unequivocally demonstrate that this emission has been limited in the European Union, but there are countries where the emission of certain substances has increased.
The paper presents formation of the amount of methane released from a coal deposit during coal mining. The total amount of released methane is composed of the amount separated directly into the ventilation air in mines (ventilation methane) and included in the demethanation system, isolated from the ventilation air. Methane from the demethanation system is only partially utilized. The unused part of methane is discharged into the atmosphere. The paper presents how the amount of methane released in individual mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. was shaped, with a division into methane released to the ventilation system and included in the demethanation system, taking into account the part used for economic purposes and the part discharged to atmosphere. The research material covers the years 2017-2019.
Regardless of unit production, mass production – an excellent production plan is always expected to combine the exact amount of materials at the right time with production cells and employees. An accurate production plan saves money by reducing production costs and time. It helps to achieve the goal and generate the best production plan. The article addresses the problems of material resource organization in industrial, mining and processing enterprises, affecting production efficiency. Particularly the problems of planning and preparation of unit, serial and mass production in relation to specific products. Depending on the nature of material consumption (basic or auxiliary materials), different planning methods and techniques are used.
The process of transformation in the Polish economy, transforming it from a planned economy into a market economy, has resulted, among others, in the liquidation of many heavy industry plants in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (GOP). GOP cities, which grew up on the basis of heavy industry, were spatially planned according to the needs of mining and metallurgical plants. Liquidation of the plants resulted in the creation of degraded, unused post-industrial areas, scattered over various city districts. Their location is often very attractive, but with many drawbacks, such as degradation, contamination by harmful substances or unclear legal status, potential investors are reluctant to take interest in them. Detailed documentation of the land’s characteristics, the effects of the activity previously carried out here, the community’s expectations regarding the use and development of such land, will make it easier for the investor to take a decision on the redevelopment of the area. The article is an example of a preliminary analysis of a selected post-industrial area, which helps to outline the direction of its revitalization.
Hard coal mines are vulnerable to a series of hazards that affect the safety and effectiveness of mining production. One of such hazards is the risk of underground fires. As the exogenous underground fires appear suddenly and have a highly dynamic course, it is very often necessary to quickly evacuate the crew from the danger area. The time needed to evacuate the crew from the danger area is most commonly determined by means of analytical methods, which provide a very general calculation. Therefore, it becomes necessary to also make use of other methods and tools for determining this time. Undoubtedly, such characteristics are offered by modern calculation methods based on the artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm and characterised by high accuracy. The paper presents a sample application of such a method for evacuating a 20-member crew from the heading under threat. In order to determine the evacuation time for those individuals, a calculation model was built for the total length of the escape routes equal to 900 m. The results revealed that the total evacuation time for workers moving with the speed corresponding to the movement speed in a heading filled with smoke (with considerably reduced visibility) will amount to approx. 21 minutes. The results obtained may constitute an essential source of information for service teams responsible for ensuring the operational safety in mine headings. At the same time, the model developed allows for broader application to the estimation of crew evacuation times from danger areas.
The article presents the issues covering the modern methods of securing data in both manufacturing processes and companies within the concept of Industry 4.0. In this approach, research problems arose how to implement the right method of secure data sending in sales, manufacturing and distribution processes. It is a very important issue for manufacturing companies as well as how the process of sending electronic data should be safely conducted. While current researches concentrated on the method of blockchain secured electronic documents, there is almost no research concentrating on blockchain integrator selection criteria. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a decision assistance model based on multiple criteria decision analysis technique. Also, mutual relationships between parameters for the assessment of integrators are established. In the article, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used to assess these characteristics. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was chosen for this assessment.
Manufacturing companies operate on data from production, operation and trade. The strategy of creating and collecting data at the centre of production processes has significantly improved in recent years. Manufacturers are now collecting and storing vast amounts of data from their manufacturing facilities, both online and offline, from multiple geographic locations and with a growing number of separate data repositories. The design of workplaces and products continues to migrate from paper to the computer, where analysis accuracy, visualization, and collaboration utilities allow designs to be realized much faster and better than ever before. As the pace of this development accelerates with the increased capabilities of the software design tools, less time is spent on physical prototyping, allowing for shortened time-to-market for new products. Ergonomists, who in the past used the physical prototypes to perform human factors analyses, are now challenged to move the analysis into the virtual domain using new tools and methods. Usability, maintainability, physical ergonomic assessments, psychological perception, and procedural training are some of the human factors issues that might benefit from analysis prior to the first physical incarnation of the design.