The load factor is the determining factor for airlines in economic terms and the prediction of the future development of the flight route. The combination of load factor and break-even point provides the airline with a comprehensive picture of the business of the flight route and the optimization of pricing for the flight route. The purpose of the article is to propose and adapt the development of air transport prices on a given line using maximally recalculated values and maximize profit. The optimized calculation algorithm then facilitates the understanding of the individual steps of the load factor calculation and the monitoring of price development by means of the chi-square mathematical method by which we observed the interconnection of the ticket price and the load factor. To describe the problem, we chose the Bratislava – Larnaca route.
University and business cooperation offers many benefits not only for the parties involved. It translates into innovation and competitiveness of the economy. The relationship encounters many barriers that are related to the environment (both internal and external) in which it is implemented. The aim of the article is to identify the determinants of university-business cooperation (areas of cooperation, barriers, motivations) and to point out recommendations from the perspective of scientists in Poland and the United States (USA). The experience of USA researchers can be used as a background for considerations about cooperation between universities and business in Poland, and as an example of good practices for the purpose of supporting and improving the analyzed relationships. The article focuses on selected determinants of university and business cooperation: areas of cooperation, barriers limiting it, motivations for cooperation and the possible options for its improvement (recommendations of researchers). In order to achieve the assumed goals, an individual, in-depth interview was conducted with the use of a questionnaire as the research tool. The presented results of the research showed significant differences between the models of university and business cooperation in Poland and the USA.
The article considers international trends and directions of inclusive growth which is considered as an inclusive economic growth and is measured by heterogeneous growth indicators, as an index of inclusive development. Considering the above, was analysed the existing state of the country’s growth considering the environmental, economic, social and technological components as prerequisites for inclusive environmental management. Thus, the main focus of this article is on the formation of prerequisites for inclusive nature management in socio-economic and environmental practices and their subsequent methodological support. So segments of population prosperity means not just material consumption, but social vision formation and the institutional support creation for enables everyone to participate in the socio-economic achievements. The main gaps in the institutional support of the inclusive environmental management process are disclosed: in the social sphere: limited access to economically viable means that meet the real needs of the population in terms of health care, social assistance, basic education and awareness; in the ecological and economic sphere there is no effective and efficient management of providing the population with products that comply with the requirements of eco-certification and eco-labelling, which negatively affects the replenishment of the state budget and the promotion of the rational use of natural resources. Therefore, in order to create a favourable climate and institutional support of inclusive environmental management, in this article, will conduct a thorough analysis of the status of its components and assess the compliance of the existing conditions with current international requirements for inclusiveness. Inclusive growth requires environmental inclusion, which can be achieved through the introduction of new metrics and resource value indicators in regional development projects and programs. In doing so, measures should be developed and recommendations made to improve further planning and control.
Social responsibility is seen as an institutional innovation, which leads to a chance of social rules. Social responsibility also stimulates other types of innovation, which could work as feedback to keep or as a strategic change of social responsibility. The strategy for improvement of quality creates opportunities to identify and to learn from those who are farther along the road to exceptionality and have improved quality or their products and services by improving their organization. The initiative to improve quality of products and services by improving the organization has to be based on clearly defined principles that help define key functions that support organization’s activities, required resources and serve as supporting tools to improve quality. For an organization to have long term and continuous success it needs to fulfill expectations of all stakeholders and as part of this we can discuss Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR. This includes behaviour of organizations that goes beyond the prescribed legislative requirements, but includes activities that benefit not only the organization itself, but also its employees and the public.
One of the rationalization areas is the material supply process. New tasks of material supply are: integration of supply with the operation of the entire system, especially at the product design stage, effective use of material resources, reduction of the level of supply costs from the point of view of production costs. In the conditions of unit and small batch production the materials requirement needs to be carefully planned and optimized due to the use of many different kinds, types and sizes of materials and dynamic changes of demand over time. In this situation there are needed tools enabling the measurement of production costs for particular tasks on the basis of currently realized processes. One of these tools is activity based costing which is a groundwork for decision making process in the material supply area. Basing on activity based costing, a model of materials requirements planning was developed, which considers minimizing the number of different kinds and sizes of materials by using alternative materials and, consequently, lowering production costs.
The publication analyses the way of managing and improving the quality of the production process of aluminum pistons for internal combustion engines. The aim of the article is to propose a method of analysis of the effectiveness of individual control methods used in the process of controlling the aluminium piston. Thanks to the location of a control point with the highest share of product non-compliance detection in the production process, it is possible to reduce quality control points by less effective points, which will contribute to lower costs or shorten the time of production processes. In view of the increasing demands on the efficiency of the checkpoints for components in internal combustion engines, the issue is important and topical.
It is a well-known fact that research and development (R&D) activities are an important factor in maintaining a business on the market. Nowadays, not only is conducting R&D crucial for entities from new technology sector, but also for companies from each sector, including service entities. The aim of the study was to investigate R&D activities among the biggest publicly traded entities in Poland and to examine the way economists and engineers understand the notion of R&D. We hypothesize and find that R&D expenditure is underestimated or unrecognized in financial reports disclosed by service sector enterprises. Further, we surveyed professional economists and engineers to investigate their knowledge about R&D notion and ability to distinguish operational (day-to-day) actions from R&D activities. The study results indicated difference between the opinions expressed by economists and engineers. Our findings are important for regulators and practitioners as they pinpoint that a substantial change in the definition of R&D is required in order to facilitate a wider adoption of R&D by companies rendering services.
This article deals with the adjustment of a 3D printer for laser engraving and material cutting. The print head can be fitted with a solid laser diode module, which achieves a compact size while retaining its useful power. Two paths lead to the use of such a concept. It is possible to equip the existing print head with a module, which also brings a number of disadvantages such as, for example, the reduction of the printing space or the need for a suitable mounting design. A more elegant solution is to consider this in the design of a 3D printer and design a system to exchange the print heads for 3D printing and laser engraving. Such a solution allows full utilization of the workspace and simple installation of the effector for the required type of work. According to the installed power of the laser diode, it is possible not only to engrave but also cut material such as thin wood, veneer or acrylic glass. The use of such a machine is not only for graphic elements but for the creation of various stencils, boxes or simple models, which can be made up of plastic-burning pieces. The laser module is controlled by a driver, which is designed for the device. This is connected to a 3D printer control board. It is, therefore, necessary for the control board to have at least two pins, which can be controlled after adjusting the control firmware. Most laser modules are normally equipped with an adjustable lens, which is used to concentrate the focus of a laser for the given distance against the worktop. Thus, the modified 3D printer can perform its function as a multi-purpose CNC machine, while a basic platform similar for both devices is used.
On the basis of legal, environmental, social, and economic factors, reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain issues have attracted attention among both academia and practitioners. A growing number of publications is an expression of reverse logistics trend in the literature which has been lasted for around 40 years. Hence, a comprehensive literature review of recent and state-of-the-art papers is vessential to draw a framework of the past, and to support researchers in their works by indicating journals or adequate references. The aim of this paper was to prepare appropriate literature review procedure and following it to review all papers whose main topis was reverse logistics. The papers were analyzed and categorized to construct a useful foundation of past research with respect to the scale of number of research on reverse logistics, considering stages of reverse logistics development, targeted journals, main research centres and leading countries. Moreover there were reccommended the most valuable papers as references.
The purpose of the study is presentation of the method of increasing the competitiveness of the mining industry through the demonstration of the possibility and potential in closing the loop of supply chains through waste management. A critical analysis of the source literature and an arithmetic analysis of statistical data in static and dynamic perspectives were accepted to be the research method. It has been found that the structure of the level of mining wastes and the level of their recovery rates demonstrate a large potential of closing the loop of chains in this industry and, at the same time, a potential to extend the chains through directing the material from recovery to various sectors. This constitutes an example of the direction of activities that are in line with the EU strategies for the economies of other states which possess this type wastes.