Fundamental legal-linguistic research includes next to monolingual approaches to the legal language also comparative approaches. Meanwhile, the epistemic value of comparative approaches is unclear in legal linguistics. Therefore, in this article different legal-linguistic comparative approaches will be scrutinized, and their perspectives made operational in legal linguistics. Especially, the traditional analysis of legal terminology gains momentum here in the context of discursive comparative approaches. The multilingual origins and the intertextual mode of existence and development of the legal language are identified as its characteristic features. They also shape processes in which the language of the global law emerges in the contemporary social reality.
Authors of translations of legal codes do not usually inform about their approach to solving translational problems. One of the reasons is the firm belief in the need for a faithful and thus literal translation of the output text. This unlawful approach creates a field for unfounded creation of so-called Equivalent terminology. Consequently, translations contain expressions whose meanings in the target language are incomprehensible or cannot be determined by reference to the doctrine or case-law. A legal approach based on subject knowledge and a precise methodology for determining interlingua equivalents eliminates the problems arising from a non-lawful approach. In the analytical part of the article there is presented a methodology of the legal approach to solving translational problems and the method of its practical application.
Research into ‘translation universals’ in legal translation is a relatively new field, which still needs to be expanded with further empirical studies. The few studies conducted so far fall into two main categories: a) analyses that explore the typical features of European legalese as translated language against national legal language; b) studies based on corpora of national legal language translated into other national languages.
The present paper is framed within the second category and aims at contributing to the academic debate on translation universals applied to legal language; more specifically, it aims at testing the methodology adopted to study translation universals on a bilingual parallel corpus of judgments delivered by the Spanish Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional, TC) translated for informative purposes into English.
The corpus-based analysis, carried out mainly quantitatively, includes the comparison with a larger corpus of original judgments delivered by the UK Supreme Court (UKSC) with the final objective of testing some indicators of simplification, explicitation, normalisation, levelling out, interference, untypical collocation.
Preliminary results are promising, even though it is not possible to identify robust and homogeneous trends.
Therapeutic jurisprudence is an interdisciplinary examination on the effect of the law on the mental and emotional health of those implicated in the judicial process. It concentrates primarily on the psychological impact of legal rules and procedures, as well as on the behaviour of legal players. TJ is a tool not often used in the promotion of linguistic rights. Endowed with a double mission, both normative and descriptive, TJ makes it possible to measure the impact of health incidences. In providing legal reformers with more precise tools to assess the health impacts of new linguistic rights standards TJ offers such a path of implementation of linguistic rights – not only from the formal point of view, but by keeping in mind their actual effectiveness – integrating law and languages in a way to mitigate their consequences on a population’s health.
This article’s purpose is to analyse the derived forms of term frère in French culture, where its correspondent is frérot, and in Italian culture, where the correspondent is fratè. We will try to show how and why, if yes or not, the two terms represent the same realities in both languages; if there is a same semantic extension and how the speakers of both languages use the two derived forms in their conversations. This study is contrastive, and its objective is also to define convergences and divergences of the use of the two forms fratè and frérot in the languages under analysis, that is to say French and Italian.
The frontiers of biosemiotics are inconspicuously blurry. This is a feature and not a bug of the discipline in that it allows us to ask questions beyond certain boundaries, enriching both our knowledge beyond semiotic theories and the possibility of covering new ground through them. Yet, explanatory power should be something of a concern for biosemioticians looking to plant flags around different heights. The paths cleared by backwoodsmen should hold up to scrutiny, and in order for biosemioticians to examine these paths, some of the features of semiotic theory should work as reminders of what the aim of semiotic theory is.
This paper will explore one particular issue when it comes to building biosemiotic theories, namely, the idea that the semiotic comprises a universal and basal quality in a hierarchy of elements assumed to give rise to other, more complex things. The metatheoretical problem at its core will be defined as the unnecessary expansion of semiotic attributes in order to give them enough explanatory power to either provide semiotic theories of everything or give a semiotic basis to theories that do not, in principle, require it.
This paper focuses on the impact of the creation of the new administrative French region «Occitanie – Pyrénées, Méditerranée» under the social representations of the Occitan linguistic space point of view. This new region was created in 2016 by the union of two former regions, Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon, and does not correspond precisely to the linguistic and historical Occitanie. Therefore, the name of the new region could delegitimize both the name and the linguistic practices – indeed, already remarkably jeopardized.
This paper argues that Russian Formalism is to be considered a constitutive part of the international empiriocritical movement—Ernst Mach (1838—1916) and Richard Avenarius’s (1843—1896). The conceptual parallelism between Empiriocriticism and Formalism is striking indeed. Thus, the cornerstones of the empiriocritical approach—the concept of series [Reihe] and the concept of elements [Elemente], understood as sensations [Empfindungen]—are plainly recognizable within formalist theories: the notion of ‘series’ (for example, the notion of ‘literary series’ or ‘poetic series’, leading to the famous concept of ‘literariness’, literaturnost’) and the very formalist idea of a necessarily perceptible character of aesthetic form are only two, most famous, examples of this astonishing affinity. Here are some of the most striking convergences between Empiriocriticism and Formalism: the relativity of any knowledge; continuity between knowledge and perception; the pragmatic dominant; the leitmotif of ‘the Unsalvageable Ego’. Besides, the paper seeks to situate Russian Formalism within European Aesthetic German-speaking Formalism. This kind of formalism formulates some basic oppositions correlated to different types of forming being associated with specific means and specific formal devices to affect them. In this context, particular morphological features result in producing particular feelings conceived in the spatial or syntactic perspective. From its German-speaking analogue, Russian Formalism has inherited this relational and spatial definition of feelings and, largely speaking, of emotionality within art. Indeed, both formalisms treat emotion as a ‘non-subjective’, ‘kinetic’, ‘syntactic’ phenomenon located on the surface of aesthetic objects.
In January 2018, the President of the Czech Republic was elected. Before that, each of the candidates communicated their intention to run for the office in a different kind of speech. By using selected characteristics, we evaluate and compare these candidate speeches. Subsequently, we reflect on the possibilities of correlating the results of the election with data collected during the analysis.