Over the last 20 years, sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly used tool to tackle education-related challenges around the world and has even become recognized by major international institutions such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth. In spite of this, evidence on the effectiveness of SFD programs on educational outcomes is limited. Through a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), this paper seeks to begin addressing this gap. Literature is included if it quantitatively examines the relationship between participation in a SFD program and educational outcomes, namely academic performance, school attendance, or attitudes and behaviors related to school. Results are then organized and presented according to these aforementioned areas. The identified literature paints a mixed picture of SFD’s impact on educational outcomes related to academic performance and school attendance, though the data related to improved attitude and behavior is more positive. Overall, the lack of research on this topic and the deficiencies in some of the identified studies do not allow for the conclusion that SFD generates positive education-related outcomes. This paper concludes by proposing potential solutions to address this gap in research.
Feedback has been shown to influence the extent and rate of learning. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of Knowledge of Results (KR) on more accurate trials versus KR on less accurate trials on intrinsic motivation, self-confidence and anxiety changes. Participants were 60 female students with a mean age of 16 years (SD = 0.4). Participants practiced volleyball serve task in 4 session (each session included 6 blocks and each block included 6 trials) that subjects received feedback on 3 trials out of 6 trials at the completion of each 6-trial block. While one group was provided KR about the accuracy of the 3 best serves in each block, another group was given KR about the 3 poorest serves. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) twice as pre-test and post-test. Both groups increased their service scores across practice blocks. On the retention test without KR, which was performed seven day after the practice phase, the more accurate trials group had higher accuracy scores than the less accurate trials group. The present findings demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased. In addition, results demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased.
Presented paper contains looks which mainly attempt to analyse the promotion in sport by social media and brand image management on the example of „Connected by football” channel.
Research process required usage of diagnostic survey method. Exploration shows that social media has contributed to popularisation and improved the image of the Polish National Football Team. Respondents’ opinions about the formula of the „Connected by football” channel. The reasons and motives for the interest of the „Connected by football” channel are mainly involved with sports activities and the team’s life outside of trainings and matches. Survey shows that half of the respondents changed their mind about the players after watching the video materials and due to this fact the emotional bond between players and supporters increase. The research presents that „Connected by football” channel played a significant role in Polish National Football Team image’s building.
The article presents differences in describing sportspeople during the last four Olympic Games in terms of gender and nationality in Polish newspapers. The fundamental goal of the research was to perform the quantitative and qualitative comparison of press materials from four Olympics (Vancouver 2010, London 2012, Sochi 2014, Rio de Janeiro 2016). The content analysis was used for the quantitative part of the study and critical discourse analysis of two newspapers (the broadsheet and tabloid) in Poland for qualitative part. 712 media articles were analyzed. Our analysis has revealed significant underrepresentation of women and also differences in the description of rival competitors as well as overrepresentation of articles about Polish representatives during the Olympics. Those articles dwelt on the issue of nationality much more often and were more emotionally charged. Also, to a great extent, the performance of non-Polish women athletes was left unconsidered. The authors therefore indicate the validity of combining gender analysis and nationality in the context of the Olympic Games.
This paper focuses on personal statements written by 23 Year 11 students about what outdoor recreational activities they participated in and their sense of cultural identity in the culturally plural context of Australia.. A sociological approach of inductive analysis of their comments was employed to investigate the extent to which those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. The respondents came from six Adelaide co-educational secondary schools which agreed to participate in the study. The responses given to the guideline questions provided evidence of participation in twelve different outdoor recreational activities, some involving individual pursuits and others group activities. Twelve students identified themselves as ‘mainstream Australian’, while eight claimed identities linked to other European and Asian cultural groups and three reported no sense of cultural identification. The evidence from this exploratory study was that those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. However, they were more likely to be involved in individual rather than group activities. Furthermore they preferred land-based activities to those requiring water skills. The paper discusses the significance of the findings, implications for making future initiatives and policies in outdoor recreational activities more inclusive, as well as directions for further research.
The objective of the present study was to analyse the position of sport as a quality of the life domain (QOLD) in subjective quality of life (S-QOL) in deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) people with different sport participation level. Three groups of D/HH people (n=164) were recruited for the study: elite and competitive athletes (ECA; n=30; mean age 22.2±1.8 years), recreational athletes (RA; n=22; mean age 25.2±2.0 years) and non-athletes (NA; n=112; mean age 26.8±1.9 years). D/HH ECA are the most satisfied in their lives equally with their sport participation, social relations, physical health and the level of independence together with general health. D/HH RA reported the highest satisfaction with sport participation, social relations and with physical health and the level of independence. Position of sport is in ECA and RA lives is the priority number one as well as the satisfaction with other QOLDs as social relations, physical health and level of independence. The position of sport participation in D/HH NA among the QOLDs was interestingly in the second place in the order together with physical health and level of independence domain. Inclusive participation in sport from the earliest age of D/HH children together with able-bodied peers should help better understand mutual communication. Than D/HH people would remain in regular sport participation in later life and so S-QOL among D/HH minority population would be significantly increased.
In water polo competitions, teams play four periods, each period consisting of eight minutes of actual playing time: a total of 32 minutes (Standard Actual Play Time, SAPT). Substitutions are permitted and a player may be substituted several times. The aim of this article was to provide reference data on played time, taking into consideration the field play position of the players. 352 male water polo players of 18 different nationalities were studied during two consecutive FINA World Championships. 180 games were analyzed and 1980 measurements of the game Measured Actual Play Time (MAPT) were taken. A time density index (DI) was calculated for each athlete using SAPT and MAPT. No statistically significant differences between the field positions were found with regard to age, as was the case in relation to teams between Game MAPT, Tournament MAPT and DI. However, when looking at the diverse field positions (field players, FP; center forward, CF; center back, CB), there were statistically significant differences: Game MAPT FPvsCB p = 0.03 and FPvsCF p = 0.03; Tournament MAPT FPvsCB p = 0.03; DI FPvsCB p = 0.03 and FPvsCF p = 0.04. In these competitions the water polo player had on average a MAPT value of 17.4 ± 6.1 min (54.6 ± 9.5% DI); there were athletes who played 2.3 min (7.1% DI) and others who played up to 31.6 min (95.3% DI). The MAPT in water polo is extremely variable among athletes and must be considered for a correct performance analysis. High-level water polo players require different training strategies depending on their MAPT.
This study aimed to compare selected hormonal responses to a single session of high intensity interval training performed with an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (hyperoxia) and under normoxic conditions. Twelve recreationally trained men (age 24 ± 3 years) performed two sessions of high intensity interval training on a cycle ergometer, in randomized order with hyperoxia (4 L·min-1 with a flowrate of 94% O2) and normoxia. Each session consisted of 5 intervals of 3 minutes at 85% of the maximal power output, interspersed by 2 min at 40% of the maximal power output. Serum cortisol, prolactin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed both before and immediately after each high intensity interval training session. Statistically significant differences in cortisol were found between hyperoxic and normoxic conditions (p = 0.011), with a significant increase in hyperoxia (61.4 ± 73.2%, p = 0.013, ES = -1.03), but not in normoxia (-1.3 ± 33.5%, p > 0.05, ES = 0.1). Prolactin increased similarly in both hyperoxia (118.1 ± 145.1%, p = 0.019, ES = -0.99) and normoxia (62.14 ± 75.43%, p = 0.005, ES = -0.5). VEGF was not statistically altered in either of the conditions. Our findings indicate that a single session of high intensity interval training in low-dose hyperoxia significantly increased cortisol concentrations in recreationally trained individuals compared to normoxia, while the difference was smaller in prolactin and diminished in VEGF concentrations.
CrossFit® is a competitive sport and fitness modality characterized by multiple physical capabilities and multi-joint movements. This study aimed to analyse and classify variables related to CrossFit® competitors’ specific performance. Fifteen male CrossFit® competitors were selected (n = 15; 30.57 ± 5.5 years; 1.76 ± 0.06 m; 78.55 ± 9.12 kg). Mean values were obtained for body mass index (25.3 ± 2.14 kg/m2), 4 skinfolds, 1 repetition maximum in the squat (137.60 ± 19.65 kg) and the bench press (101.67 ± 10.64 kg), maximum pull-ups (18.87 ± 5.05), sit-ups in 60 s (46.60 ± 4.22), peak power in the countermovement jump (3908.04 ± 423.68 W), VO2max with a shuttle run test (47.70 ± 4.79 ml kg-1·min-1), and time in the Workout of the Day (WOD) “Fran” (337.13 ± 119.19 s) and “Donkey Kong” (417.47 ± 98.44 s) components. Principal component analysis was conducted to classify variables and to select those most related to each new component (“strength and muscle mass”, “adiposity” and “aerobic capacity”). The correlation matrix was analysed, indicating significant correlations between “Donkey Kong” and VO2max (r = -.675; p “ .01), suprailiac skinfold (r = .713; p “ .01) and sit-ups (r = -.563; p “ .05); and between “Fran” and squat (r = -.528; p “ .05). Three important components characterizing CrossFit® competitors were identified: “strength and muscle mass”, low “adiposity” and “aerobic capacity”. Significant relationships between morphofunctional variables and Crossfit® performance were found in Crossfit® competitors.
Previous research in badminton has associated unilateral landings following overhead strokes with the occurrence of knee injuries. Smashing involves tensing the abdomen muscles while swinging the racket rapidly and maintaining one’s balance while performing coordinated movements and steps; this process puts stress on the player’s lower limbs. However, few studies have compared the effects of different stroke training while performing various types of badminton strokes. This study investigated the influence of different stroke training on the smash action of badminton players. Three stroke training conditions were considered: shadow, target striking, and smashing. Sixteen male experienced badminton players were recruited for this study. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used to identify the differences. At the initial contact with the ground, the knee flexion and knee valgus angles under the smash condition were significantly higher than target and shadow conditions. Under the smash condition, hip abduction was significantly higher than under the target and shadow conditions. Moreover, the hip abduction under the target condition was significantly higher than under the shadow condition. At the maximum knee flexion, the hip abduction under the smash and target conditions was significantly higher than under the shadow condition. Regarding the time from the moment of initial contact to the peak of vertical ground reaction force it was shorter under the smash condition than the target and shadow conditions. The vertical ground reaction force was higher under the smash condition than under the target and shadow conditions. The 50 ms impulse was higher under the smash condition than under the target and shadow conditions. The main findings of this study are that under the smash condition, the motion in the frontal plane increased, which produced higher loads on the joints in the lower limbs. Player performed the same footwork under the three conditions, but the landing strategies differed because of unique swing motions and techniques. The condition under which a player hits a shot to a target area can affect the landing. The results of this study suggest that target practice is more effective for improving the landing technique employed during actual shots than shadow practice.