One of the important factors on which road safety depends is adequate visibility. This article analyses horizontal visibility within road intersections. The visibility condition depends on many factors, primarily on the geometric parameters of road elements and the location of buildings, fences, vegetation etc., neighboring the road. The aim of the research presented in the study was to determine the current condition of horizontal visibility, on the example of twenty two intersections located mostly in built-up rural area along a provincial road near Czestochowa. The research was carried out by two methods (the analysis of satellite photographs and the visual method) and the obtained results were compared. The assessment of the security level was based on applicable regulations and technical guidelines. It was found that the results of the visibility assessment based only on the analysis of maps and satellite photographs are in many cases overestimated, due to the fact that many small elements not visible in the photographs are not taken into account and the occurrence of convex vertical road arches within the field of visibility. However, the main reason for the insufficient visibility at the many intersections is the fact that the geometrical parameters of roads and their surroundings were shaped in the past when the traffic conditions were completely different. It was also noted that road managers perceive this problem and take measures to increase safety within road intersections.
The mining industry in Serbia has an important place in the country's economic development. Bearing in mind that the number of injuries that occur in the mining industry is unacceptably high, occupational safety and health is a challenge that existing and future mines will have to deal with. Studying injuries in mining, it was noticed that injuries requiring an absence from work for more than three days (especially fatal ones) are diametrically different in relation to the cause and manner of events related to injuries for which an absence from work is not necessary. In this research, authors focused on injuries that were characterized as ones requiring an absence from work. The statistical analysis of work-related injuries in mining is presented, as well as analysis of the direct causes of injuries, which are described as unsafe conduct of employees, unsafe conduct of company's management and/or unsafe working environment. In relation to classification of causes of injuries, a recommendation on what needs to be changed in order to remedy this situation in Serbia is given.
The operation of various types of machinery and equipment constituting a material work environment exposes employees to many different hazards (especially mechanical hazards). According to the Polish law, the basic duty of both machine manufacturers and employers is to limit the level of these hazards and to provide employees with broadly understood safety. The article presents the basic issues related to the technical safety of laser cutter operators on the example of a selected industrial plant. Technical and organizational solutions used to reduce the level of risk associated with the use of the selected machine were assessed.
The main goal of the study will be to pay attention to awareness of technological and digital development. Sense of responsibility unites certain groups of entrepreneurs, scientists and decision-makers. The main principles of the idea of corporate social responsibility are related to maintaining balance in business activity between three kinds of capital - economic, human and natural. Following the technological and digital development in recent years, more attention is given to socially responsible creation and implementation of innovation. Corporate Digital Responsibility (CDR), which in recent months has been taking formal shape, is a new initiative within social responsibility. CDR means the awareness of duties binding the organisations active in the field of technological development and using technologies to provide services. The article refers to the dynamic development of technologies that threatens also global labour market due to automation and mass implementation of solutions based on artificial intelligence. Being aware of this dynamic process it is worth to emphasise that businesses and employees have far less time to thoroughly examine social consequences of ongoing implementations related to digitalisation.
Nodular cast irons are used in a wide range of industrial applications, especially in the automotive industry. SiMo-type of nodular cast iron is suitable for high-temperature applications, for example the exhaust manifolds of the combustion engines; SiCu-type of nodular cast iron is used in various components of tribotechnical units. These automotive components often work in a corrosive environment. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to compare the corrosion resistance of two types of the nodular cast irons (SiMo-type and SiCu-type). Corrosion resistance was determined by the exposure immersion test at ambient temperature. Specimens of both types of nodular cast iron were immersed in 3.5 % NaCl solution (to simulate sea water) and gradually removed from the solution after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Subsequently, the weight loss (g) and the average corrosion rate (g m−2 day−1) were calculated. Experimental results show that nodular cast iron alloyed by Si and Mo has higher corrosion resistance than the nodular cast iron alloyed with Si and Cu. Moreover, the mechanical properties (evaluated by tensile test, impact bending test and hardness test) and fatigue properties of both types of nodular cast iron has been compared in the paper.
The paper presents good practices and selected problems of creating cooperation networks. The basics of creating and disseminating new forms of cooperation between enterprises and universities have been described. Based on the implemented international project “3DCentral - Catalyzing Smart Engineering and Rapid Prototyping”, selected conclusions from creating network and management of many project activities including innovative technologies are presented.
In this work on the basis of the developed and tested mathematical model, the numerical experiment is conducted in order to study in more detail the specifics of performance of concrete beams` with combined reinforcement. For this purpose nine series of reinforced concrete beams with different combination of steel bars (A400C, At800, A1000) and ribbon reinforcement (C275) were modeled. In the developed series two classes of concrete were used: C50/60, C35/45. The functions derived on the basis of mathematical modeling allow us to determine the recommended percentage of high-strength reinforcement of common reinforced concrete structures with single reinforcement. Therefore, the possibility is obtained to reduce the total structures` reinforcement percentage, increasing their deformability by the specified value without affecting the bearing capacity.
The paper discusses nucleate boiling heat transfer on meshed surfaces during pool boiling of distilled water and ethyl alcohol of very high purity. It presents a correlation for heat flux developed for heaters covered with microstructural coatings made of meshes. The experimental results have been compared with the calculation results performed using the correlation and have been followed by discussion. Conclusions regarding the heat flux determination method have been drawn with the particular focus on the usefulness of the considered model for heat flux calculations on samples with sintered mesh layers.
Building a strong economy depends on numerous factors: technological, political, geographical but also and above all social ones. Currently, the ongoing fourth industrial revolution is primarily based on digitization of all processes in the conducted activities. The acquisition and processing of vast amount of data generates information which is very complex and not always unambiguous. Industry 4.0 also assumes that employees will understand both technical needs and those not related to the production process. This means that the present education system (definitely the one related to technical science) should also be changed so that engineers acquire more managerial skills. The article presents the educational assumptions in the face of challenges posed by Industry 4.0 in the context of the current opportunities of the labor market and education in Poland and in Europe.
Physical activity is an inseparable sphere of human life, and is not rarely associated with work. Evolution has adapted man to perform various activities that meet their life needs. Man is created for walking, sitting, lying and standing. All these activities should take place in turns. Physical work should be varied in terms of dynamics and not limit people to stay in one position while performing work. The position changes, among others, to increase blood pressure, in addition, stimulates the heart and respiratory system, as well as improves the efficiency of both physical and mental work. In turn, taking only one position for a long time, which often occurs in static physical work, causes many health problems. For musculoskeletal disorders related to a non-ergonomic work position and a forced position at work, every fourth employee in Europe complains. In Poland, musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common causes of absence at work. In Polish enterprises, the assumption that profit is the most important is still dominant. Man is rarely seen as the most important capital of an enterprise that needs to be taken care of. For many employers, all additional measures related to shaping safe working conditions are only costs, not investment and potential profit. This paper presents the effects of static physical work in relation to work safety in the light of publicly available reports and information. The review has been enriched with the results of research carried out in one of the production enterprises of the SMEs sector. The research results presented in the paper are pilot and constitute an introduction to a large research work.