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Research Purpose. This article examined critical thinking skills amongst senior-level undergraduate students in a Middle East setting, Kuwait. In addition, the study investigated the gender differences.

Methodology. The subjects involved in this study comprised a convenience sample of 90 graduating seniors. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of two motivational factors on the development of critical thinking skills. The analysis used the specific subsection about critical thinking skills, which is part of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). One factor relates the sense of entitlement that can arise in a welfare state, which heavily subsidises a wide range of things for citizens, including education. We examined differences between citizens and non-citizens, who do not have access to welfare benefits.

Findings. The results supported the hypotheses that student groups have different levels of critical thinking skills. We found that expatriate students had more highly developed critical thinking skills than students who were Kuwaiti citizens. We also found that women had more highly developed critical thinking skills than men had.

Practical Implications. The welfare state measures undertaken by the government of Kuwait may be counterproductive. The guaranteed employment of its citizens and generous monetary support whilst in school may discourage the development of critical thinking skills. Future research could focus on ways to motivate particular groups (e.g. Kuwaiti men) to enhance their critical thinking skills.


Firefighters have a demanding and difficult mission both physical and mental so their training must be rigorous and well prepared, therefore they should have good physical resistance, strength, speed, and coordination. Our study focuses on the 4 x 100 m race with obstacles and how should firefighters physically prepare for the race. We had two different samples that form the first and second team of ISU Sibiu in the competition of firefighters of 4 x 100 m race with obstacles, formed by 10 males with age of 30 ± 3.5 years old with experience in this kind of competitions between 2 and 7 years. We presented our training program and the effects on the results of our athletes and also analyze the efficiency of developing motor qualities such as strength, speed, resistance and coordination. The results show relatively good improvements in the performance time in any of the fourth exchanges and also in the motor qualities level. Conclusions of our research present the efficiency of training athletic skills and also the motor qualities in obtaining better results at the 4 x 100 m race with obstacles.


Research purpose. The importance of sustainable development, the need to achieve sustainable economic development that does not harm the environment, conserve natural resources or exacerbate tensions in society has been increasingly discussed over the last decade. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the economic growth and decent work environment in G20 countries during 2013–2018 as G20 countries are the fastest growing countries in the world, and their economy describes the major part of the global economy.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Qualitative data analysis based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature, content analysis, interpretation, comparison and grouping is used, in order to analyse the theoretical aspects of sustainable development and its goals, especially goal 8: decent work and economic growth. TOPSIS method helps to rank G20 countries according to the indicators of SDG 8.

Findings. The results showed that Japan reached the best work environment and the most significant economic growth during 2013–2018. The United States is in second place and the third – the Republic of Korea. In the bottom three are Argentina, Brazil and South Africa.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. Since it is challenging to identify the achievements of the economic and work environment development, as an essential part of sustainable development goals, the results could lead to future insights that will create value to policymakers, economists and other stakeholders.


Sprouting Entrepreneurs is a three-year teaching programme for rural primary and secondary schools that focuses on entrepreneurship in agriculture. It addresses the South African real-life challenges of food insecurity, youth unemployment and rural poverty from a classroom perspective, by linking agriculture, food and entrepreneurship as main learning areas. This paper outlines the programme in its local social and economic context. It argues for the need for a concept of entrepreneurship education that views opportunities in the context of young people’s positive freedoms. Its didactical model combines the EntreComp framework with the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and others. It emphasises the role of capabilities or freedoms in developing and implementing ideas that create value for others. The Sustainable Development Goals form a medium of learning.


The topic addressed in this article is a current one and modern armies discuss it a lot and many analyses and comments can be made. In the article, the author presents the general framework of operations in the urban environment and starting from the operational requirements mandatory to conduct such operations he analyzes the prospects that such operations have in future military operations and proposes directions for action necessary for the effective training of the subunits within the Romanian Land Forces.


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the relations between anthropometric parameters, red blood cells’ (RBC) variables and cardio-physiological parameters in healthy and physically active children and adolescents.

Material and Methods: In this study 625 subjects, (410 males and 215 females; age span 8 to 18 years) underwent body composition analysis (Matiegka method), blood analysis and ergometry testing (Bruce protocol).

Results: In both groups, body height and weight were positively correlated with RBC variables. In female group almost all correlations between RBC variables and body components were insignificant. In boys all absolute body mass components showed positive correlations with RBC variables with notice that body fat mass had lowest correlation coefficient. Body fat percent (BF %) did not show any correlation with RBC variables in both gender groups. In boys BF % had moderate negative correlation with aerobic performance: exercise time (ET) and VO2max (rs = -0.41 and rs = -0.39). Lean body components showed weak positive correlations with ET and VO2max. RBC count did not show significant correlation with any cardio-physiological parameter in both groups. Haematocrit and haemoglobin showed weak positive correlations with VO2 max and general endurance (exercise time). In girls all correlations between cardio-physiological and RBC variables were insignificant. The relationship between all body components and all cardio-physiological variables in girls were statistically insignificant.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that there are some expected positive correlations between lean body mass components, aerobic performance and RBC variables in boys, while in girls such relations were not noticed.


Research purpose. This article aims at distinguishing and weighting the educational factors that could have an impact on young people’s choice to study in European higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/Methodology/Approach. To achieve the aim, previous research and scientific literature were studied and experts from student society and the higher education sector, who deal with international students, were interviewed. The developed questionnaire was based on pairwise comparison procedure, and the obtained data were processed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method.

Findings. The findings revealed that the following factors are the most critical for students who want to study at European HEIs: provision of programmes that are taught in English, the existence of scholarship opportunities, provision of different facilities in the campus, and accreditation of the study programme and university.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The current study focuses on a topic that has been studied fragmentally, that is, on which factors are crucial for an international student to choose HEI in Europe. The current research contributes to the existing scientific literature by identifying and systemising educational factors influencing young people’s choice to study in Europe. The obtained results could be useful for professionals who are responsible for strategic partnerships at European universities.