The goal of this paper is to identify critical factors in success/failure of public policies focusing on fighting the spread of COVID-19 pandemic using a sample of three countries from Central and Eastern Europe with different results regarding COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates, namely the Czech Republic, the Russian Federation, and the Slovak Republic. Based on comprehensive literature review, three independent variables were worked out: the scope/scale of public policy anti-pandemic interventions, the timing of public policy interventions, and the success of public policies in motivating compliance with anti-pandemic measures. Taking into account the similarity of measures introduced by national governments, the results suggest that the timing of public policy responses and success in motivating compliance may be critical factors in containing the pandemic.
The European continent faces an apocalyptic pandemic that poses mortal danger to millions of citizens. This paper seeks to address the role played by European public policy in addressing the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, each Member State across Europe is applying its own measures to deal with the coronavirus; namely, decentralised decision-making that could trigger political tensions among the states. The paper argues that European public policy must change rapidly and fundamentally if these tensions are to be successfully managed; otherwise, such policy might simply cease to exist. Moreover, the known and notorious problem of collective action, information asymmetries, irrationality, negative externalities and the related free-riding phenomenon persistently are distorting the Member States’ combined efforts, resulting in deficient attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19. The paper also argues that the current unprecedented outbreak of this superspreading virus calls for a bigger EU-wide coordinated response. We argue that the Covid-19 pandemic is a good example of an area in which the central EU level holds a comparative advantage over lower levels of government. In addition, the paper offers several substantive insights into ways to improve the public policy response in the ‘war’ against Covid-19.
The active ageing policy supports several types of activities, including labour force participation, caregiving, social participation, and physical activity. The paper illustrates the prevalence of supported activities across individual characteristics and four supra-national European regions to assess how these activities are available for specific groups of older people. The analysis draws on wave 6 from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe held in 2015. A set of figures describes the availability of activities sorted by gender, age, health status, and the level of education in 17 European countries divided into four regions, and thus, presents the unavailable descriptive data important for researchers and policymakers. The results most of all show that the majority of the 50+ population engages in vigorous physical activity, whilst labour force participation and caregiving concern about one-third of it, and other activities much less. The findings show the inadequacy of the active ageing as a uniform context-insensitive EU policy and detect its potential for raising inequalities in later life, whilst the theoretical implications are discussed.
A democratic government should adhere to firm public administration principles, legal instruments, structures and mechanisms. However, providing these elements is insufficient to guarantee integrated participative service delivery. This article aims to unravel the most important elements required to create a participative governance model that fuses horizontal intra-relationships between public officials and departments and vertical interactions between public and private networks. The research methodology entailed a critical desktop document analysis of books, articles, regulatory policy and strategy documents. Network governance was conceptually and contextually analysed through unobtrusive research methods. It served as a possible analytical model for democratic governance, where citizens take centre stage in participative decision-making. The findings provide both a description and a contextualisation of the themes that emerged from the research. The article highlights that the network governance model could help South Africa move forward from a dated, elitist democracy based on a dependency model, to a participative democracy model, where communities and government work together. The article concludes that South Africa can only realise the National Development Plans (NDPs) 2030 goals (to maximise people's development, strengthen governance networks and enhance state's capacity to provide adequate public services) by drawing on partnerships within a network governance framework.
From its beginning until today the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry has suffered more than seventy bigger accidents where intervention of the fire service and thorough examination was required. In the article the author presents the short analysis of accidents that were collected, systemized, and entered into database during the research, and their integration into the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on the finished database, with the extended list of the locations’ GPS coordinates, the accidents will be entered into the ArcMap application. The publication of the accidents will be done with the help of Arcgis Viewer for Flex – Application Builder program. Following the GIS placement of accidents, testing, drawing conclusions and summarization are the main goals. The next step will be the preparation for assigning the database to the Disaster Management Decision Support Geographic Information System. Following the international publication, the long-term goal is the connection of each country’s files of dangerous industrial activities that were collected by researchers into one common database.
This article is written to highlight the ways in which China engages in the competition to conquer world supremacy. China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower. There are views on rapid economic progress, increasing military power, a very large population and increasing its international influence, as signs that it will play an important role in the world in the 21st century. However, other opinions warn that economic chimeras and demographic imbalances could slow or even stop China’s economic growth. The Chinese dream is a concept that has been promoted by the Chinese president Xi Jinping since late 2012 within the Chinese society to describe a set of personal and national paragons for the future of China. It is currently widely used by journalists, governmental officials, and activists to describe the individual’s role in the Chinese society, as well as the Chinese nation’s goals for the future.
This paper describes automobile collision avoidance system by using of an ultrasonic sensor for a vehicle. We utilize the electronic systems application embedded in car that is anticipated to minimize the disaster of car accident. This paper is concentrating on developing a model of rear end car collision avoidance system that detects the gap among motors moving in the identical lane, inside the identical direction and alert the driver each time she or he is in danger range by using a microcontroller. The gap is measured via an ultrasonic sensor used to experience the obstacle beforehand.
Writing has traditionally been a neglected area of foreign language teaching, and most probably the least popular skill to acquire among students. However, it has lately emerged as an important element of the communication dyad, which also involves speaking, i.e. the oral manifestation of social interaction and exchange of information. When explaining writing in practical terms, the focus falls on showing that there should be a link between real-life needs and instruction, both from the perspective of the language and from that of the task. Understanding writing systematically not only guarantees successful writing outcomes, but also leads to the acquisition of a secondary set of language-related abilities: an informed selection of grammar and lexical structures; a logical pattern of organization in the development of ideas; an appropriate choice of register and style; an overall better approach to writing tasks and contextualizations. This article aims to discuss writing as a productive skill while proposing six different approaches that successfully marry both the linguistic dimension and the task-related awareness students need to acquire in order to successfully express themselves in written forms.
This study presents the history of explosive devices and that of their detection. With the invention of explosive devices and their subsequent use, the methods of warfare changed significantly. New procedures emerged that were already unthinkable to implement without the use of such tools. In parallel with the emergence of explosive devices with increasing destructive power, the need to deactivate them also came to the fore. Opposing parties made increasing efforts to detect, deactivate, and destroy explosive devices. After the completion of military operations, the detection of explosive devices did not lose its importance, and developed into an essential mission, since the areas had to be cleared of devices left over from the military actions and posing a murderous danger.
The toxic leadership point out damaging attitudes and behaviours which can affect leaders’ personal traits resulting severe damage to the organization and its subordinates. Given the multinational environment from a theatre of operations, what might be toxic for the military in one country might be accepted in another one, taking into consideration the discrepancies between cultures. No matter their cultural background or their national particularities, the toxic leaders reduce the effectiveness of the organization and of it’s operations. This article wants to highlight, from an analytical approach, the existing types of toxic leaders and their impact to the military organization in Afghanistan theatre of operations.