The way of directive of the European Parliament and the Council in 2014/94 on October 22nd 2014 in the case of infrastructure development of alternative fuels which was specifically concerned with calls to reduce oil dependence on transport in European countries was imposed due to the necessity to formulate specific provisions in individual nations in the Union. In correlation to this, on the day of 11th January 2018 the act on electromobility and alternative fuels was passed, which came to be on the day of 1st September 2018 with changes implemented later on.
The regulations mentioned above oblige public transport to partially replace their diesel engine-based rolling stock and introducing changes to alternative fuels (compressed hydrogen in gaseous form belongs to such fuels). Support systems in Poland are an important element in the implementation of modern and ecological technologies. Very often those solutions are much more expensive compared to the ones used so far. The financing provided by them enables the realization of such projects in our environment. In this work, the idea of emission-free public transport operating on the basis of electric vehicles (Battery Electric Vehicles) as well as hydrogen (Fuel Cell Vehicles) will be presented. Both of these variants will be compared and their working principle are going to be shown.
The analysis of support systems for the development of emission-free public transport on a European, national and regional level will also be presented.
All collected information will form a compendium of information essential to implementing the public transport project in Polish conditions.
Companies should constantly seek the causes and sources of irregularities. For this purpose, known and widely used quality management methods and tools should be used. Thanks to them, organizations will be able to identify key irregularities and then seek solutions for correction and improvement. Achieving high reliability of products, companies are able to fully meet their consumers’ needs. The paper explains the basic concepts related to quality. However, the most important issue is to present an example of solution using the Poka Yoke method, for an electronics company. The company specializes in the production and development of electronic and electromechanical components, for industries of different categories: household appliances, energy, automotive. The presented solution for improvement concerns modernization of workstations.
The article presents an authorship version of the analysis procedure of data set from MSA Attribute Study for the purposes related to the reduction of conformity assessment errors and improvement of production process effectiveness. The MSA manual does not include any clear guidelines on how to eliminate errors or guidelines on how to analyse data sets from attribute study to eliminate errors. The article attempts to fill the gap identified in this field. In this article (Part 1), the author outlines the key features of own methodology of analysis data from MSA attribute study. In this article, which is one of the two parts, a research problem has been identified. It was emphasised that the influence on the reduction of the effectiveness of the production process have errors committed by the controllers in the alternative assessment of the product’s conformity with the requirements, i.e. errors of I and II type, in particular, II type errors, which should be first eliminated. A traditional approach to research analysis and evaluation of alternative inspection system practised in the MSA manual was presented. Four key assumptions that were adopted for the research goal were presented. Author’s procedure for analysis of errors from the attribute study data set is to point to the direction of activities in the field of error analysis, emphasise intolerance to any error, assume to use the root causes analysis and the coaching sessions to reach the root causes of conformity errors. In the second, final article in the series (Part 2), the author illustrates how, step by step, the procedure could be used in practice. It also presents the advantages and limitations of its own procedure.
In the first article in this series, the research methodology concerning the analysis of inspection errors based on MSA attribute study data set for the improvement purposes was presented. In the final article in the series, applying the methodology in practice step by step was presented. Instructions for correct performance of the analysis, in compliance with the author’s procedure, were determined. Both advantages and disadvantages of the developed approach were underlined.
The paper presents the results of research aimed at assessing the level of satisfaction of individual customers of a company offering Internet access services. The study was conducted using the CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index) method. The study process consisted of 2 stages. The first study conducted in 2017 identified customer requirements and revealed insufficient customer satisfaction with the services provided to date. The analysis of the CSI revealed that customer satisfaction in these areas was not the highest. This state of affairs forced the company to carry out a broad improvement program, which is characterized in this paper. The second study was conducted (in 2019) a year after the implementation of the changes. Owing to this, it was possible to compare customer satisfaction ratings and the customer requirements, as well as to assess the effectiveness of the improvement measures taken. The study allowed to broaden the knowledge about the analyzed service in terms of methods of its measurement and factors having a decisive influence on its quality and efficiency. The service under analysis has been effectively improved.
The article presents a case study of the practical use of BOST surveys to identify the most important areas in the production process. It was made the identification of areas from the second Toyota’s management principle point of view. This principle is based on the conviction that appropriate process leads to appropriate results. If the process is designed properly, then good results will come automatically. The research object is company producing the mineral water and carbonated drinks. Some production workers of the company with the help of BOST questionnaire survey showed, which factors are the most important. In frames of the work it was made short characteristics of the research object - producer of mineral water, the presentation of research methodology and content second Toyota’s management principle. Based on the survey results of carried out on the population of production workers, a series of importance areas for improvement was formulated. The aim of the analysis is to present which factors are the most important by building the significance sequences of obtained results. In the article were presented results of analysis with using some statistical tools. The results obtained for the type of small and medium-sized enterprises overlap with the results of tests verified in other enterprises.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the consumption of disposable packaging, which has led to overloading landfills. These problems have become widely noticeable and dominant in a wide range of packaging issues in terms of environmental protection. The development of knowledge in the field of environmental protection, which has taken place in recent years, has shown that the impact of packaging should be considered throughout its life cycle, taking into account many factors that constitute environmental burdens and threats. Many companies operating in the world markets, using the standardized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, conduct tests in terms of technical and material solutions with the lowest environmental impact. Therefore, this publication was to conduct environmental analysis of the life cycle of disposable food packaging based on the method of LCA. The subject of the research were bottles, caps and labels made mainly of polymeric materials: polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and LDPE. Eco-indicator 99 was used as the calculation procedure. The impact of the analysis objects on human health, ecosystem quality and resources was assessed. Among the examined objects, the highest level of negative influence on the environment was characteristic for the life cycle of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. The use of recycling processes reduce the environmental impact by about 25%.
In the last few decades there have been significant changes in single-family housing in rural areas. More and more new buildings are being built, many are being renovated or thermomodernized. This activity generates a number of waste that, if not managed properly, can have a negative impact on the natural environment. This article analyses ways of waste management generated during the erection of new buildings, renovations and reconstruction. The aim of the research presented in the study was to identify trends in the manner of construction waste management in the last thirty years in rural areas of the Czestochowa district. The substantive basis for the research were CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview) surveys carried out among investors and contractors of construction works in the analysed area. On their basis, indicators illustrating changes in the manner of management individual types of waste were estimated. It was found that positive changes occurred in this area during the analysed period. Primarily, the scale of activities having a clearly negative impact on the environment and the safety of life of residents decreased significantly. Processes such as uncontrolled burning or burying waste in the ground have been reduced from over 40% to around 13.5%. The reason for these positive trends is primarily the increasing ecological awareness of rural residents, high fines for the illegal removal of waste, as well as in the case of waste other than construction, the obligation to have waste containers. Currently, positive environmental activities such as selective waste collection and transfer to specialized companies increased from around 2.5% to over 50%.
The stress-strain state of reinforced concrete elements is rather complicated issue of scientific research, which integrates different factors, such as the load type, atmospheric conditions, various defects, damages, geometric deviations. It is commonly known that corrosion of reinforced concrete elements affects both the strength and deformation parameters of the structure significantly; thus, internal stresses` parameters are also influenced. Therefore, detailed theoretical investigation of this issue is the main goal of this article. The detailed literature review and thorough analysis was conducted concerning previous experimental and theoretical studies of the corrosion defects` influence on the reinforced concrete elements` stress-strain state. Existing data and results were systematized and analyzed. On the basis of provided research it could be concluded that the reinforced concrete elements` stress-strain state greatly depends on existing damages and impurities. The stress-strain state could be complicated on micro-scale due to material chemical and mechanical peculiarities; simultaneously on macro-scale the bearing capacity is of the structure could be reduced in general. In the articles existing methods for this issue simulation and evaluation are described and perspective fields for further research are identified. The practical significance of the article is due to complex approach to the research and multilateral identification of the main issue key points.