The European continent faces an apocalyptic pandemic that poses mortal danger to millions of citizens. This paper seeks to address the role played by European public policy in addressing the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, each Member State across Europe is applying its own measures to deal with the coronavirus; namely, decentralised decision-making that could trigger political tensions among the states. The paper argues that European public policy must change rapidly and fundamentally if these tensions are to be successfully managed; otherwise, such policy might simply cease to exist. Moreover, the known and notorious problem of collective action, information asymmetries, irrationality, negative externalities and the related free-riding phenomenon persistently are distorting the Member States’ combined efforts, resulting in deficient attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19. The paper also argues that the current unprecedented outbreak of this superspreading virus calls for a bigger EU-wide coordinated response. We argue that the Covid-19 pandemic is a good example of an area in which the central EU level holds a comparative advantage over lower levels of government. In addition, the paper offers several substantive insights into ways to improve the public policy response in the ‘war’ against Covid-19.
The active ageing policy supports several types of activities, including labour force participation, caregiving, social participation, and physical activity. The paper illustrates the prevalence of supported activities across individual characteristics and four supra-national European regions to assess how these activities are available for specific groups of older people. The analysis draws on wave 6 from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe held in 2015. A set of figures describes the availability of activities sorted by gender, age, health status, and the level of education in 17 European countries divided into four regions, and thus, presents the unavailable descriptive data important for researchers and policymakers. The results most of all show that the majority of the 50+ population engages in vigorous physical activity, whilst labour force participation and caregiving concern about one-third of it, and other activities much less. The findings show the inadequacy of the active ageing as a uniform context-insensitive EU policy and detect its potential for raising inequalities in later life, whilst the theoretical implications are discussed.
A democratic government should adhere to firm public administration principles, legal instruments, structures and mechanisms. However, providing these elements is insufficient to guarantee integrated participative service delivery. This article aims to unravel the most important elements required to create a participative governance model that fuses horizontal intra-relationships between public officials and departments and vertical interactions between public and private networks. The research methodology entailed a critical desktop document analysis of books, articles, regulatory policy and strategy documents. Network governance was conceptually and contextually analysed through unobtrusive research methods. It served as a possible analytical model for democratic governance, where citizens take centre stage in participative decision-making. The findings provide both a description and a contextualisation of the themes that emerged from the research. The article highlights that the network governance model could help South Africa move forward from a dated, elitist democracy based on a dependency model, to a participative democracy model, where communities and government work together. The article concludes that South Africa can only realise the National Development Plans (NDPs) 2030 goals (to maximise people's development, strengthen governance networks and enhance state's capacity to provide adequate public services) by drawing on partnerships within a network governance framework.
The ancient history of the concept of condominium and the particular attitude towards the right of ownership of an apartment has attracted worldwide recognition for this type of property. The concept of condominium is based on three components: (1) individual ownership of an apartment; (2) joint possession of common property of a plot of land and parts of a building; and (3) membership in an owners’ association. An apartment in a condominium is an exception to the principle of superficies solo cedit in property law. In this case, the rights of ownership of owners of apartments in a condominium—the rights of ownership of a number of persons—are accumulated with regard to a plot of land. This article analyses, on the one hand, the peculiarities of apartment ownership in condominiums, Georgian legislation—which is the result of the reception of German civil law, and, on the other hand, the court practice developed on these issues in Georgian law.
Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.
Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.
Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.
Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.
The article discusses the latest wave of the higher education quality assurance (QA) reform, implemented by the Government of Georgia in response to its obligations envisaged by the EU–Georgia Association Agreement and its consequent Association Agenda 2017–2020. We argue that Eu conditionality was a major driving factor for the modernization of Georgian QA system according to the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG 2015), and even though the reform was mostly implemented in the framework of the country’s EU integration, an expected reward in the form of the membership of the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) granted to the national Center for Educational Quality Enhancement (NCEQE) of Georgia was the major driving force for implementing the reform successfully. While this reward-driven reform has resulted in the ENQA membership, it has not inevitably led to building a sustainable, independent and development-oriented external quality assurance system for the enhancement of Georgian higher education. Therefore, the entire QA reform was merely aimed at “talking the EU talk” (Schimmelfennig & Sedelmeier, 2005, p. 27) by the Georgian government instead of actually being focused on the development of internal “quality culture” in Georgian higher education institutions.
Subject and purpose of work: Investigation and statistical analysis of tourism flows and of trends observed in Ukrainian-Polish cross-border tourism. The purpose of the study is aiding further cross-border tourism-related cooperation between Ukraine and Poland.
Materials and methods: Government and commercial statistics sources. Data analysis methods included literary, analytical, comparative, and quantitative methods.
Results: The processes and dynamics of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the field of tourism during 12 years (from 2006 to 2017) have been investigated. The authors analysed data related to tourism flows and determined the primary source-countries of visitors based on the inbound and outbound indicators and the current tourism market trends within this cross-border cooperation.
Conclusions: The main trend in the Ukraine-Poland tourism flow over the last decade is the stabilisation ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL STUDIES STUDIA EKONOMICZNE I REGIONALNE ISSN 2083-3725 to Poland. In the last few years, it has been driven by Ukraine’s focus on Euro-integration.
Preparing for elections during election campaigning has been topical in every era. In the 19th century, new methods for carrying out election campaigns were developed in the United States. The Americanization of election campaigns is characterized by political personalization, the special role of the media in a pre-election period, brittle ideological grounds and particular specialization of the political campaign. A plethora of different concepts have been coined to explain this process, including ‘Americanization’ and ‘professionalization’. As the uS is identified as the origin of election campaigning trends, these assumed convergences came to be known in academic writing as ‘Americanization’. Election campaigning was in need of professionals hired to navigate the campaign’s strategy. With the emergence of campaign advisors, the term ‘professionalization’ was introduced.
In Georgia, the first steps on the way to statehood were made at the beginning of the 1990s, following the 70 years of Soviet rule. in post-Soviet Georgia, multiparty and competitive elections enabled political parties to use foreign experience in political campaigning. The goal of the present article is to define the existing election campaign model in Georgia, and especially, to examine the tendencies of Americanization in the election campaigns in Georgia in the period of 1990–2016. According to the research hypothesis, the weak institutionalization of the party system creates a favorable ground for the Americanization of political campaigning. in the 1990s, the weak representativeness of Georgian parties played an important role in political campaigning since the very beginning. in the research process, the characteristics of political campaigns in post-Soviet Georgia were analyzed.
This study makes use of qualitative research methods, including: (a) expert interviews with political consultants; (b) in-depth interviews with representatives of political parties; and (c) in-depth interviews with the selected electorate. Qualitative research methods were chosen for the work for the purpose of understanding the tendencies of the Americanization of election campaigning in Georgia from the respondents’ perspective. Qualitative methods are more explicit and descriptive, and by gathering responses like these, it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of the subject.
The present article is devoted to the research on the admissibility of expulsion of a partner from a limited liability company (LLC) based on the ground that is not envisaged in the charter, and on respective dogmatic normative grounds in Georgian law. The importance of research in legal studies and judge-made law1 is revealed in the fact that the situation in which the action of a partner is directed against the interests of the company and becomes an obstacle for the achievement of a common goal, and it becomes impossible to retain the partner remains outside of Georgian normative reality. The aim of the research requires an analysis of German law, assimilated in the context of the Georgian solution, as well as the description of civil legal grounds for exclusion and prerequisites for admissibility, a study of the legal nature of the society and dogmatic support to the application of the civil law regime for the termination of long-term contractual relations. The suggested Georgian solution in this matter shares the spirit of German law policy; however, it is outstanding in its individuality.